Color atlas of pharmacology

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Color atlas of pharmacology" presentation of content: History of pharmacology, drug sources, pharmacokinetics, pharmacokinetics, adverse drug effects, genetic variation of drug effects, drug elimination, adverse drug effects.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Color atlas of pharmacology" presentation of content: Drugs acting on the sympathetic nervous system, nervous system nervous system, cardiac drugs, biogenic amines, antipyretic analgesics, drugs for the suppression of pain, plasma volume expanders,... and other contents.

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  • Since time immemorial, medicaments have been used for treating disease in humans and animals. The herbals of antiquity describe the therapeutic powers of certain plants and minerals. Belief in the curative powers of plants and certain substances rested exclusively upon traditional knowledge, that is, empirical information not subjected to critical examination.

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  • Distribution in the Body proceeds rapidly, because the absorbing surface is greatly enlarged due to the formation of the epithelial brush border (submicroscopic foldings of the plasmalemma). The absorbability of a drug is characterized by the absorption quotient, that is, the amount absorbed divided by the amount in the gut available for absorption. In the respiratory tract, cilia-bearing epithelial cells are also joined on the luminal side by zonulae occludentes, so that the bronchial space and the interstitium are separated by a continuous phospholipid barrier.

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  • Drugs for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcers cipitated antacid or, phosphate depletion of the body with excessive intake of Al(OH)3. Na+ ions remain in solution even in the presence of HCO3–-rich pancreatic secretions and are subject to absorption, like HCO3–. Because of the uptake of Na+, use of NaHCO3 must be avoided in conditions requiring restriction of NaCl intake, such as hypertension, cardiac failure, and edema. Since food has a buffering effect, antacids are taken between meals (e.g., 1 and 3 h after meals and at bedtime). Nonabsorbable antacids are preferred.

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  • Nicotine is no longer possible, even in the face of an intensive and synchronized release of ACh (C). Although nicotine mimics the action of ACh at the receptors, it cannot duplicate the time course of intrasynaptic agonist concentration required for appropriate high-frequency ganglionic activation. The concentration of nicotine in the synaptic cleft can neither build up as rapidly as that of ACh released from nerve terminals nor can nicotine be eliminated from the synaptic cleft as quickly as ACh.

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  • General Anesthetic Drugs sic, an injectable anesthetic, a short-acting muscle relaxant, and a low dose of a neuroleptic. In regional anesthesia (spinal anesthesia) with a local anesthetic (p. 204), nociception is eliminated, while consciousness is preserved. This procedure, therefore, does not fall under the definition of general anesthesia. According to their mode of application, general anesthetics in the restricted sense are divided into inhalational (gaseous, volatile) and injectable agents.

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  • Drugs Acting on the Sympathetic Nervous System of the sympathetic division can be considered a means by which the body achieves a state of maximal work capacity as required in fight or flight situations. In both cases, there is a need for vigorous activity of skeletal musculature. To ensure adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients, blood flow in skeletal muscle is increased; cardiac rate and contractility are enhanced, resulting in a larger blood volume being pumped into the circulation. Narrowing of splanchnic blood vessels diverts blood into vascular beds in muscle.

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  • Quantification of Drug Action the dose at which one-half of the group has responded. The dose range encompassing the dose-frequency relationship reflects the variation in individual sensitivity to the drug. Although similar in shape, a dose-frequency relationship has, thus, a different meaning than does a dose-effect relationship. The latter can be evaluated in one individual and results from an intraindividual dependency of the effect on drug concentration.

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  • Adverse Drug Effects premature breakdown of red blood cells (hemolysis) in subjects with a glucose6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The discipline of pharmacogenetics deals with the importance of the genotype for reactions to drugs. The above forms of hypersensitivity must be distinguished from allergies involving the immune system (p. 72). Lack of selectivity (C). Despite appropriate dosing and normal sensitivity, undesired effects can occur because the drug does not specifically act on the targeted (diseased) tissue or organ.

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  • Drugs for the Suppression of Pain (Analgesics) ing, or burning character, i.e., pain that can be localized only poorly. Impulse traffic in the neo- and paleospinothalamic pathways is subject to modulation by descending projections that originate from the reticular formation and terminate at second-order neurons, at their synapses with first-order neurons, or at spinal segmental interneurons (descending antinociceptive system).

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  • Drug Administration be very precise. (Standardized medicinal teaspoons and tablespoons are available.) Eye drops and nose drops (A) are designed for application to the mucosal surfaces of the eye (conjunctival sac) and nasal cavity, respectively. In order to prolong contact time, nasal drops are formulated as solutions of increased viscosity. Solid dosage forms include tablets, coated tablets, and capsules (B). Tablets have a disk-like shape, produced by mechanical compression of active substance, filler (e.g., lactose, calcium sulfate), binder, and auxiliary material (excipients).

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  • Pharmacokinetics (t1/2) and the apparent volume of distribution Vapp (p. 28) by the equation: Vapp t1/2 = In 2 x –––– Cltot The smaller the volume of distribution or the larger the total clearance, the shorter is the half-life. In the case of drugs renally eliminated in unchanged form, the half-life of elimination can be calculated from the cumulative excretion in urine; the final total amount eliminated corresponds to the amount absorbed.

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  • The present second edition of the Color Atlas of Pharmacology goes to print six years after the first edition. Numerous revisions were needed, highlighting the dramatic continuing progress in the drug sciences. In particular, it appeared necessary to include novel therapeutic principles, such as the inhibitors of platelet aggregation from the group of integrin GPIIB/IIIA antagonists, the inhibitors of viral protease, or the non-nucleoside inhibitors of reverse transcriptase. Moreover, the re-evaluation and expanded use of conventional drugs, e.g.

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  • Drug-Receptor Interaction partial charges. When a hydrogen atom bearing a partial positive charge bridges two atoms bearing a partial negative charge, a hydrogen bond is created. A van der Waals’ bond (B) is formed between apolar molecular groups that have come into close proximity. Spontaneous transient distortion of electron clouds (momentary faint dipole, !!) may induce an opposite dipole in the neighboring molecule. The van der Waals’ bond, therefore, is a form of electrostatic attraction, albeit of very low strength (inversely proportional to the seventh power of the distance).

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  • Inhibitors of the RAA System lasting effect than does captopril. Indications are hypertension and cardiac failure. Lowering of an elevated blood pressure is predominantly brought about by diminished production of angiotensin II. Impaired degradation of kinins that exert vasodilating actions may contribute to the effect. In heart failure, cardiac output rises again because ventricular afterload diminishes due to a fall in peripheral resistance.

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  • Compared with hydrophilic drugs not undergoing transport, lipophilic drugs are more rapidly taken up from the blood into hepatocytes and more readily gain access to mixed-function oxidases embedded in sER membranes. For instance, a drug having lipophilicity by virtue of an aromatic substituent (phenyl ring) (B) can be hydroxylated and, thus, become more hydrophilic (Phase I reaction, p. 34). Besides oxidases, sER also contains reductases and glucuronyl transferases. The latter conjugate glucuronic acid with hydroxyl, carboxyl, amine, and amide groups (p.

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  • Drugs li KT used in Hyperlipoproteinemias port vehicles in the aqueous media of lymph and blood. To this end, small amounts of lipid are coated with a layer of phospholipids, embedded in which are additional proteins—the apolipoproteins (A). According to the amount and the composition of stored lipids, as well as the type of apolipoprotein, one distinguishes 4 transport forms: Lipid-Lowering Agents Triglycerides and cholesterol are essential constituents of the organism.

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  • Laxatives and Purgatives colon bacteria to the active free aglycones. Diphenolmethane derivatives (p. 177) were developed from phenolphthalein, an accidentally discovered laxative, use of which had been noted to result in rare but severe allergic reactions. Bisacodyl and sodium picosulfate are converted by gut bacteria into the active colonirritant principle. Given by the enteral route, bisacodyl is subject to hydrolysis of acetyl residues, absorption, conjugation in liver to glucuronic acid (or also to sulfate, p. 38), and biliary secretion into the duodenum.

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  • Disinfectants and mixtures of these. Minimal contact times should be at least 15 s on skin areas with few sebaceous glands and at least 10 min on sebaceous gland-rich ones. Mucosal disinfection: Germ counts can be reduced by PVP iodine or chlorhexidine (contact time 2 min), although not as effectively as on skin. Wound disinfection can be achieved with hydrogen peroxide (0.3%–1% solution; short, foaming action on contact with blood and thus wound cleansing) or with potassium permanganate (0.0015% solution, slightly astringent), as well as PVP iodine, chlorhexidine, and biguanidines.

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