Food safety and foodborne diseases are topics of global concern. Food safety
encompasses many areas, including pesticide and antibiotic residues, the presence
of mycotoxins and foodborne pathogens, and all aspects of food production
and preparation. Many issues associated with these topics are common to all
countries. Decisions must be made by each nation to determine priority areas
that should be addressed to ensure the health of its citizens.
In a Global scenario, economically progressive nations have developed medical
sciences. But still it lacks precise information during the enhancement of potent drugs
to combat ailment, which is the legacy of the organisms that generate diseases. Rising
countries had long been perceived the threat, which at times, down the lane has been
the major factor for magnanimous economic disaster and human poverty. Lot of
resources was put into force by the world community to abscond the microbial fauna
and genetically inherited diseases to contain them within the safe limits.
Given the enormous number of microorganisms ingested with every meal, the normal host must combat a constant influx of potential enteric pathogens. Studies of infections in patients with alterations in defense mechanisms have led to a greater understanding of the variety of ways in which the normal host can protect itself against disease.
The large numbers of bacteria that normally inhabit the intestine act as an important host defense by preventing colonization by potential enteric pathogens.
enzymes are powerful biological catalysts that are essential for the proper maintenance and propagation of any organism. these properties make them excellent candidates as therapeutic targets to combat diseases of either genetic or pathogenic origin. in this regard, one goal of molecular medicine is to develop and implement effective agents that can modulate the activity of various enzymes involved in essential biological pathways. the process of developing and characterizing these small molecules, i.e., rational drug design, often requires a priori knowledge of the enzyme in question....
When retrograde dissociative amnesia is accompanied by suddenly leaving the customary
environment and compromised knowledge about personal identity – the condition is named
dissociative fugue. Fugues have been reported for over a century, though they were
frequently erroneously associated with epilepsy (e.g., Burgl, 1900; Donath, 1899). A century
ago, these conditions were named Wanderlust in Germany (cf e.g. Burgl, 1900). Fugue states
were described to be preponderant in children and young adults (Dana, 1894; Donath, 1908).
Many mycobacterial species, including M. tuberculosis, grow extremely slowly in the
laboratory and require 3–8 weeks of incubation on solid medium or at least 2 weeks in a
radiometric liquid culture system (BACTEC). This slow growth often leads to delay in TB
diagnosis. Nucleic acid amplification (NAA) methods allow for detection of mycobacterial
DNA or RNA directly from the specimens before the culture results are available. The Food
and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two NAA tests for direct detection of M.
tuberculosis from clinical specimens.
The United States is pursuing a comprehensive, whole-of-government approach to global health through the Global
Health Initiative (GHI). GHI seeks to achieve significant health improvements and foster sustainable effective, efficient
and country-led public health programs that deliver essential health care. Through GHI the Obama Administration
is committed to improving and saving lives by strengthening health systems.
Wise men study the sciences which deal with the origins and development of animal life, with the structure of
the cells, with the effect of various diseases upon the tissues and fluids of the body; they study the causes of
the reactions of the body cells to disease germs, and search for the origin and means of extermination of these
enemies to health. They study the laws of physical well-being. They seek for the chemical principles
governing the reactions of digestive fluids to the foods they must transform into heat and energy.
A real example of this principle is the use of the “commander’s intent” in the U.S. Army. The Army knows that
its leaders cannot be everywhere in the field of combat controlling all the decisions. Therefore, Army leaders
clearly establish the “commander’s intent” to serve as a guide on which soldiers can base their own initiatives,
actions and decisions. Thus, even if the mission falls on the shoulders of the lowest ranking person, she must
be able to understand and carry out the mission.
Developing our service model will be a staged process,
taking into account current opportunities to embed
mental health promotion activities within a broader
strategic agenda for chronic disease prevention.
Common risk and protective factors (eg. participation
in physical activity) and common target groups
and settings (healthy children, workplaces, and
communities) create strong links between these two
outcome areas. Strategies to be implemented under
Strategic Directions for Chronic Disease Prevention
2009–2012 will support the promotion of positive
2004Tuberculosis is a major health problem throughout the world causing large number of deaths,more than that from any other single infectious disease. The review attempts to summarize theinformation available on host immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Since the mainroute of entry of the causative agent is the respiratory route, alveolar macrophages are theimportant cell types, which combat the pathogen. Various aspects of macrophage-mycobacteriuminteractions and the role of macrophage in host response such as binding of M.
Health care and hygiene programmes can help in control. Watering at night
or at midday reduces the risk of being bitten by flies. Preventive measures
before the onset of the disease (Chemoprophylaxis) and curative measures
after the disease is clinically evident (Chemotherapy) have shown varying
success in controlling and combating the disease (Table 32). As for all
trypanosome diseases, drug resistance due to misuse and especially by
using too small doses or diluting the drug with water or some other liquid is
an increasing problem.
During the implementation, VNRC carried out only about half of its planned monitoring activities, due to the
intensive scheduling of activities and availability of time among project teams at different levels. In order to
address at least part of this challenge, VNRC has mobilized two staff from the Ho Chi Minh City
representative office to support monitoring the training for volunteers in the three targeted provinces of Ho
Chi Minh, Dong Nai and Binh Duong.
This publication is the fifith in a UNICEF series that monitors progress for children towards achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It assesses current performance in relation to MDG no.7 which aims to halve by 2015 the number of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. As well as being vital in themselves, safe water and sanitation are also key prerequisites for achieving other MDGs such as reducing child and materal mortality, combating diseases, reducing child undernutrition and achieving universal primary education.
Advocacy in India Inspires
Advocacy efforts around pneumonia are vital in
India, which has more child pneumonia deaths
each year than any other country in the world.
In 2008, approximately 370,000 Indian children
under the age of five died of pneumonia.
For the past five years, the small grant awardee
Swaasthya has been implementing a maternal
and newborn health initiative in the slums of
Malegaon, a small city in the state of Maharashtra,
India. Swaasthya noticed delays in community
members reporting to a health care provider
when babies came down with pneumonia.
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is an incurable, degenerative, and terminal disease with few
therapeutic options . It is a complex disease influenced by a range of genetic,
environmental, and other factors . Recently, Jack et al. demonstrated the value
of shared data in AD biomarker research. A New York Times article on the role of
data sharing, in the advancement of AD research, quotes John Trojanowski at the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania Medical School: “It’s not science the way most of us have prac-
ticed it in our careers.
Diagnostic nuclear medicine began more than 50 years
ago and has evolved into a major medical specialty. Its
practitioners use low activity levels of radioactive
materials in a safe way to gain information about
health and disease. Small amounts of radioactive
materials, known as radiopharmaceuticals, are intro-
duced into the body by injection, swallowing, or
inhalation. Different radiopharmaceuticals are used to
study different parts of the body. These agents emit
photons that can be detected externally by special
Over the years since the adoption and subsequent
ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the
Child by 193 countries, significant efforts and great
strides have been made to ensure that children
(defined as people under the age of 18), regardless
of gender, origin, religion or disability status,
need special care and protection because they are
often the most vulnerable. Accordingly, today, more
than ever before, young people are recognized as
rights-bearing citizens and are playing an active role
in asserting their rights.