This paper proposes a method for organizing linguistic knowledge in both systematic and flexible fashion. We introduce a purely applicative language (PAL) as an intermediate representation and an object-oriented computation mechanism for its interpretation. PAL enables the establishment of a principled and well-constrained method of interaction among lexicon-oriented linguistic modules. The object-oriented computation mechanism provides a flexible means of abstracting modules and sharing common knowledge. ...
This bonus reference describes the functions and statements that are supported by Visual
Basic .NET, grouped by category. When you’re searching for the statement to open a file, you
probably want to locate all file I/O commands in one place. This is exactly how this reference is
organized. Moreover, by grouping all related functions and statements in one place, I can present
examples that combine more than one function or statement.
Tham khảo tài liệu 'oracle xsql combining sql oracle text xslt and java to publish dynamic web content phần 5', công nghệ thông tin, cơ sở dữ liệu phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
The fundamental objects that we deal with in calculus are
functions. This chapter prepares the way for calculus by
discussing the basic ideas concerning functions, their
graphs, and ways of transforming and combining them.
We stress that a function can be represented in different
ways: by an equation, in a table, by a graph, or in words.
Functional Programming in C# leads you along a path that begins with the historic value of functional ideas. Inside, C# MVP and functional programming expert Oliver Sturm explains the details of relevant language features in C# and describes theory and practice of using functional techniques in C#, including currying, partial application, composition, memoization, and monads.
We design a class of submodular functions meant for document summarization tasks. These functions each combine two terms, one which encourages the summary to be representative of the corpus, and the other which positively rewards diversity. Critically, our functions are monotone nondecreasing and submodular, which means that an efﬁcient scalable greedy optimization scheme has a constant factor guarantee of optimality.
Chunk parsing has focused on the recognition of partial constituent structures at the level of individual chunks. Little attention has been paid to the question of how such partial analyses can be combined into larger structures for complete utterances. Such larger structures are not only desirable for a deeper syntactic analysis. They also constitute a necessary prerequisite for assigning function-argument structure.
The IRS2092(S) is a Class D audio amplifier driver
with integrated PWM modulator and over current
protection. Combined with two external MOSFETs
and a few external components, the IRS2092(S)
forms a complete Class D amplifier with dual over
current, and shoot-through protection, as well as
UVLO protection for the three bias supplies. The
versatile structure of the analog input section with
an error amplifier and a PWM comparator has the
flexibility of implementing different types of PWM
Loss-less current sensing utilizes RDS(on) of the
We present a stochastic parsing system consisting of a Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG), a constraint-based parser and a stochastic disambiguation model. We report on the results of applying this system to parsing the UPenn Wall Street Journal (WSJ) treebank. The model combines full and partial parsing techniques to reach full grammar coverage on unseen data. The treebank annotations are used to provide partially labeled data for discriminative statistical estimation using exponential models.
This paper proposes an analysis method for Japanese modality. In this purpose, meaning of Japanese modality is classified into four semantic categories and the role of it is formalized into five modality functions. Based on these formalizations, information and constraints to be applied to the modality analysis procedure are specified. Then by combining these investigations with case analysis, the analysis method is proposed. This analysis method has been applied to Japanese analysis for machine translation. ...
Dialogues may be seen as comprising commonplace routines on the one hand and specialized, task-specific interactions on the other. Object-orientation is an established means of separating the generic from the specialized. The system under discussion combines this objectoriented approach with a self-organizing, mixed-initiative dialogue strategy, raising the possibility of dialogue systems that can be assembled from ready-made components and tailored, specialized components.
We propose a succinct randomized language model which employs a perfect hash function to encode ﬁngerprints of n-grams and their associated probabilities, backoff weights, or other parameters. The scheme can represent any standard n-gram model and is easily combined with existing model reduction techniques such as entropy-pruning. We demonstrate the space-savings of the scheme via machine translation experiments within a distributed language modeling framework. h
This paper proposes a novel method that exploits multiple resources to improve statistical machine translation (SMT) based paraphrasing. In detail, a phrasal paraphrase table and a feature function are derived from each resource, which are then combined in a log-linear SMT model for sentence-level paraphrase generation. Experimental results show that the SMT-based paraphrasing model can be enhanced using multiple resources. The phrase-level and sentence-level precision of the generated paraphrases are above 60% and 55%, respectively.
Combining word alignments trained in two translation directions has mostly relied on heuristics that are not directly motivated by intended applications. We propose a novel method that performs combination as an optimization process. Our algorithm explicitly maximizes the effectiveness function with greedy search for phrase table training or synchronized grammar extraction. Experimental results show that the proposed method leads to signiﬁcantly better translation quality than existing methods. ...
Recently, confusion network decoding has been applied in machine translation system combination. Due to errors in the hypothesis alignment, decoding may result in ungrammatical combination outputs. This paper describes an improved confusion network based method to combine outputs from multiple MT systems. In this approach, arbitrary features may be added log-linearly into the objective function, thus allowing language model expansion and re-scoring. Also, a novel method to automatically select the hypothesis which other hypotheses are aligned against is proposed. ...
Steedman (1985, 1987) and others have proposed that Categorial Grammar, a theory of syntax in which grammatical categories are viewed as functions, be augmented with operators such as functional composition and type raising in order to analyze • noncanonical" syntactic constructions such as wh- extraction and node raising. A consequence of these augmentations is an explosion of semantically equivalent derivations admitted by the grammar. The present work proposes a method for circumventing this spurious ambiguity problem.
Certain combinations of the exponential functions ex and e–x arise so frequently in mathematics and its applications that they deserve to be given special names. In many ways they are analogous to the trigonometric functions, and they have the same relationship to the hyperbola that the trigonometric functions have to the circle.
In this section, we will learn: How to obtain new functions from old functions and how to combine pairs of functions. Start with the basic functions we discussed in Section 1.2 and obtain new functions by shifting, stretching, and reflecting their graphs.
This study uses what Cresswell (2003) refers to as a ‘mixed methods approach’, one that combines
quantitative and qualitative data collection and a ‘sequential explanatory strategy’ in which the
collection and analysis of the quantitative data is followed by the collection and analysis of the
qualitative data (p 215).
Ebook English for Construction combines a strong grammar syllabus with the specialist vocabulary students need to succeed in this area. It contains topics that reflect the latest developments in the field making it immediately relevant to students’ needs. The CD-ROM accompanying the book contains the course book audio and interactive glossaries. This is ebook English for Construction 2.