In relation to studies and understanding of broad energy and pollution management
issues, the U.S. National Academies have had an on-going program of cooperation with
the Chinese Academies (Chinese Academy of Sciences and Chinese Academy of
Engineering) for a number of years. Joint study activities date to the late 1990s and led to
the publication in 2000 of Cooperation in the Energy Futures of China and the United
States. This volume was the first examination of the broad energy questions facing both
nations at the turn of the new millennium. ...
Because of the potential public health implications, the importance of toxic air pollutants in ambient
air has been recognized to some degree for many years. Efforts to “regulate” human activities
resulting in the production of ambient air pollutants probably date back many centuries, even as
the combustion of fossil fuels and air pollution from other organized human activities began having
a noticeable impact on the environment.
Analysis and abatement of air pollution involve a variety of technical disciplines. Formation
of the most prevalent pollutants occurs during the combustion process, a tightly
coupled system involving fluid flow, mass and energy transport, and chemical kinetics.
Its complexity is exemplified by the fact that, in many respects, the simplest hydrocarbon
combustion, the methane-oxygen flame, has been quantitatively modeled only within
the last several years.
This book is a comprehensi
ve and illustrated work on high temperature air combustion
(here called HiTAC), which has revolutionized our paradigm on the use of all
kinds of fossil, alternative, waste, and derived fuels for energy conversion and energy
utilization in industry. Significant experimental knowledge and insights from many
practical devices have resulted in the utilization of HiTAC technology for many
applications. The traditional definition of flame is that which gives heat and light
during chemical reaction between reactants.
CHAPTER 65 AIR POLLUTION-CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES
C. A. Miller
United States Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
SULFUR DIOXIDE CONTROL 65.1.1 Control Technologies 65.1.2 Alternative Control Strategies 65.1.3 Residue Disposal and Utilization 65.1.4 Costs of Control
2012 20 1 3 2015 2015 2015
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND ORGANIC HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS 2022 65.5.1 Conventional Control Technologies 2023 65.5.
This is a book about coal gasification and its related technologies. The relationship
between these technologies is shown in Figure 0.1. The gasification process begins with
a viable feedstock. In this book, we focus on one of those feedstocks that must go
through the gasification process, coal.
Diesel engines, also known as CI engines, possess a wide field of applications as energy converters because of their higher efficiency. However, diesel engines are a major source of NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Because of its importance, five chapters in this book have been devoted to the formulation and control of these pollutants. The world is currently experiencing an oil crisis. Gaseous fuels like natural gas, pure hydrogen gas, biomass-based and coke-based syngas can be considered as alternative fuels for diesel engines.
Fossil fuel combustion for transportation contributes to air pollution, and air pollution
degrades human health. However, the path from transportation to human health costs is anything
but straightforward. Which pollutants are produced in which proportions depend on a number of
factors, including the vehicle and fuel used and the driving conditions of a particular trip. These
emissions are dispersed into the ambient air according to atmospheric conditions, which also
influence the extent to which they react to form secondary pollutants.
Clean air is a basic requirement of life. The quality of air inside homes, offices,
schools, day care centres, public buildings, health care facilities or other private
and public buildings where people spend a large part of their life is an essential
determinant of healthy life and people’s well-being. Hazardous substances emit-
ted from buildings, construction materials and indoor equipment or due to hu-
man activities indoors, such as combustion of fuels for cooking or heating, lead
to a broad range of health problems and may even be fatal....
In many European countries incineration is used as an important means of waste disposal in urban areas.
The proportion of waste disposal by this route varies across Europe, from 13% in Italy to 53% in
Switzerland, with an average value of 20 %. However, in some countries (for example, Portugal, Spain)
the use of incineration is not used or is under consiration as a new option for waste disposal.
Two main types of pollutants (combustion gases and fly ash) are emitted from incinerators.
Air pollution is a leading environmental threat
to the health of urban populations overall and
specifically to New York City residents. Clean
air laws and regulations have improved the air
quality in New York and most other large cities, but
several pollutants in the city’s air are at levels that
This report provides estimates of the toll of air
pollution on the health of New Yorkers. It focuses
on 2 common air pollutants—fine particulate
matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3).
Airborne suspended particulate matter (PM) can be either primary or secondary in nature. Primary
particles are emitted directly into the atmosphere either by natural or anthropogenic processes, whereas
secondary particles have a predominantly man made origin and are formed in the atmosphere from the
oxidation and subsequent reactions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and VOCs.
The major sources of indoor air pollution worldwide include indoor combustion of solid
fuels, tobacco smoking, outdoor air pollutants, emissions from construction materials and
furnishings, and improper maintenance of ventilation and air conditioning systems. Although
some indoor air pollutants, such as environmental tobacco smoke, are of concern globally,
profiles of indoor air pollutants and the resulting health risks are generally very different in
developed and developing countries.
The major sources of carbon monoxide pollution are automotive exhaust and emissions
from large industrial combustion sources such as electrical power plants. Because
these sources produce many contaminants in addition to carbon monoxide -- such as
fine particles and nitrogen oxides -- it is often difficult to isolate the health effects of
ambient carbon monoxide from those of other pollutants.
In addition to carbon monoxide generated outside, there are also important indoor
sources of the pollutant.
The Blacksmith Institute’s database contains almost 350 sites contaminated with mercury, putting close to
10 million people at risk from the identified sites. It is the second most prevalent pollutant in the database.
The top sources of mercury pollution are artisanal gold processing, mining and ore processing, coal mining,
processing and localized air pollution related to coal combustion at poorly controlled sites, and chemical
manufacturing, notably for older chlor-alkali plants making chlorine.
Artisanal mining of gold ores and processing using mercury is common worldwide.
NO2 is a product of combustion. It is a precursor to ground-level ozone formation
through photochemical reactions involving VOCs. NO2 causes a brown colour in the
atmosphere at elevated concentrations. It reacts in the atmosphere with ammonia to
form fine particulates, which reduce visibility and increase PM2.5 concentrations
(Levelton Engineering Limited, 2000).
NO2 irritates the mucous membranes in the respiratory tract.
Carbon monoxide is a clear, odourless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of
organic compounds. It reduces the blood’s capacity to carry oxygen. CO combines
selectively with haemoglobin (the oxygen transport protein in red blood cells) to form
carboxyhaemoglobin. CO impairs perception and judgment at low levels. Effects worsen
as CO levels rise, leading ultimately to convulsions and coma at high concentrations.
The CO provisions of the ambient air NEPM are based on evidence that a
carboxyhaemoglobin threshold of 2.
Under certain conditions, lichen floristic and community analyses can be used in conjunction with
measured levels of ambient or depositional pollutants accumulated by lichens to detect effects of changing
air quality on vegetation. This information can demonstrate whether air pollutants cause undesirable
changes in species composition or presence/absence of lichen species within terrestrial plant communities.
It is important that any alternative hypotheses (e.g.
Stable sulfur isotope ratios in combination with multi-element analysis of lichens were used to examine the
influence of emissions from two coal-fired power plants in the Yampa Valley on pollutant deposition in the
Mt. Zirkel Wilderness of northern Colorado (Jackson et al. 1996). Coal-fired power plants typically emit
SO2 with a stable isotope ratio
S characteristic of the coal combusted.
The movement of vehicles on the street also results in resuspension of road dust. Emissions also occur as
a result of tyre wear and brake lining wear. Although there is a lack of data, it is expected that most of
these particles will be in the size range 3 to some 30µm. The chemical composition of these particles may
also be very different from those derived from combustion.
The road dust deposit available for resuspension comes from mechanical wear of, and dirt on, vehicles
(incl. tyre and brake lining wear), debris from loads on vehicles, influx of soil material etc.