System R itself was never produced commercially, but directly led
to the development of SQL/DS (1981 running under DOS/VE OS, a
VM version followed in 1982) which was IBM’s first commercial
• IBM however, did not produce the first commercial implementation
of a relational DBMS. That honor went to Oracle (Relational
Software) in 1979.
• Today, the relational DBMS system of virtually all vendors is based
• Each vendor provides all the standard features of SQL. Most
vendors also provide additional features of their own, called
extensions to standard SQL.
A huge battle is raging in the database community. The radicals
believe cyberspace is just one big XML document that should be
manipulated with xQuery++. The reactionaries believe that struc-
ture is your friend and that semi-structured data is a mess to be
avoided. Both camps are well represented within the database
community – often stratified by age. It is easy to say that the truth
lies somewhere ...
This paper examines the memory system behavior of
database management systems on simultaneous multi-
threaded processors. Simultaneous multithreading (SMT)
 is an architectural technique in which the processor
issues instructions from multiple threads in a single
cycle. For scientific workloads, SMT has been shown to
substantially increase processor utilization through fine-
grained sharing of all processor resources (the fetch and
issue logic, the caches, the TLBs, and the functional
units) among the executing threads .
In this paper we propose the design of Byzantium,
a Byzantine-fault-tolerant database replication middle-
ware. Byzantium improves on existing BFT replication
for databases both because it has no centralized compo-
nents (of whose correctness the integrity of the system
depends) and by allowing increased concurrency, which
is essential to achieve good performance.
The main insight behind our approach is to aim
for weaker semantics than traditional BFT replication
Moreover, typically, previous work investigated en-
forcing a given resource partitioning of a single re-
source, within a single software tier at a time. In
our own previous work in the area of dynamic parti-
tioning, we have investigated either partitioning mem-
ory, through a simulation-based exhaustive search ap-
proach , or partitioning storage bandwidth, through
an adaptive feedback-loop approach , but not both.
NLFE to databases have failed in a commercial context, largely because of two reasons. Current approaches to the management of ambiguity by relying on inference over a world model create ungoing customisation requirements. Furthermore the design of NLFEs is subject to constraints which research in CL/ NLP does not address. In particular, standard parsing techniques (including "robust" ones) require complete lexica and cannot be deployed because new data would create a constant need for dictionary update.
Chapter 13 - Database design for student loan limited. This chapter presents a case derived from discussions with information systems professionals of a large commercial processor of student loans. Servicing student loans is a rather complex business owing to the many different kinds of loans, changing government regulations, and numerous billing conditions.
exactly how it worked and what it was doing. Commercial companies frequently found that
when the author of a complicated macro left the company, that macro had to be rewritten
from scratch because of the time involved in assessing what it was doing.
Microsoft has introduced a new programming language called Visual Basic for Applications
(VBA). VBA is a more intuitive and robust programming language, using an object-oriented
design. It has many similarities with its older and larger cousin, Visual Basic (VB).
As much as I would like people to believe that DotNetNuke was intentionally created as a premier
open source project for the Microsoft platform, it is unfortunately not the case. As is true with
many open source projects, the software was created with commercial intentions in mind, and
only when it was discovered that its true purpose would not be realized was it reconsidered as an
open source project.
As PHP is importance grows on the IT
scene something that is happening every
day clear that its true capabilities go
well beyond what it is being used for
today. The PHP platform itself has a lot of
potential as a general-purpose language,
and not just a scripting tool; just its basic
extensions, even discounting repositories
like PEAR and PECL, provide a highquality
array of functionality that most of
its commercial competitors can't afford
without expensive external components.
Real estate investment trusts (“REITs”) have been
around for more than fifty years. Congress established
REITs in 1960 to allow individual investors to invest
in large-scale, income-producing real estate. REITs
provide a way for individual investors to earn a share
of the income produced through commercial real
estate ownership – without actually having to go out
and buy commercial real estate.
What is a REIT?
A REIT, generally, is a company that owns – and
typically operates – income-producing real estate or
real estate-related assets.
Tham khảo sách 'rapid weight loss a medical dictionary, bibliography, and annotated research guide to internet references', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
We expect that several emerging application classes will force data streams to become a first-class part of the DBMS as well.
The imminent arrival of commercial microsensor devices at low cost will enable new classes of “monitoring” DBMS
applications. It will become practical to tag every object of importance with a sensor that will report its state in real time. For
example, instead of attaching a property tag to items such as laptop computers and projectors, one will attach a...
Regarding banks’ capital structures, the standard view is that capital regulation
constitutes an additional, overriding departure from the Modigliani-Miller irrelevance
proposition (see for example Berger et al., 1995, Miller, 1995, or Santos, 2001). Commercial
banks have deposits that are insured to protect depositors and to ensure financial stability. In
order to mitigate the moral-hazard of this insurance, commercial banks must be required to
hold a minimum amount of capital.
Oracle Label Security adds extensive protection for sensitive information. It delivers multilevel
security capabilities to protect access to data right down to individual rows in tables and
addresses the real world data security and privacy problems faced by government and
commercial entities worldwide. Oracle Label Security can be combined with Virtual Private
Database, Secure Application Roles, and Oracle Database Vault to provide powerful solutions
for protecting personally identifiable information. ...
While the demand for research on investment performance has
increased, the cost of producing this research has declined. Early
studies relied on proprietary or expensive commercial databases for
their fund performance ﬁgures, or researchers collected data by hand
from published paper volumes. In 1997, the Center for Research in
Security Prices introduced the CRSP mutual fund database, com-
piled originally by Mark Carhart, into the academic research market.
Starting in about 1994, several databases on hedge fund returns and
characteristics became available to academic researchers.
The class will contain a mixture of standard lectures, guest speakers, and case
discussions. Topics covered will span the real estate equity and debt markets, both public and
private. The bulk of the course focuses on commercial or income-producing real estate, but we
will spend some time studying the housing markets. Grading will be based on five assignments
that will constitute 90% of your final grade. There are four longer cases and one shorter case.
Case #3 constitutes 10% of your grade. The other four cases each constitute 20% of your grade. ...
The existence of different autonomous Web sites containing related information
has given rise to the problem of integrating these sources effectively to provide a
comprehensive integrated source of relevant information. The advent of e-commerce
and the increasing trend of availability of commercial data on the Web has generated
the need to analyze and manipulate these data to support corporate decision
making. Decision support systems now must be able to harness and analyze Web
data to provide organizations with a competitive edge.
Additionally, the Secretary of State’s office may deny for a period of 120 consecutive
days the issuance of a driver’s license and/or instruction permit to any person who,
with intent to influence any act related to the issuance of any driver’s license or
instruction permit, attempts to bribe or otherwise influence an employee of the
Secretary of State’s office, the owner of any commercial driver training school
licensed by the Secretary of State, or any other individual authorized to give driving
instructions or administer any part of a driver’s license examination. ...
The relational database concept was described first by Dr. Edgar F. Codd in an IBM
research publication entitled “System R4 Relational” appearing in 1970. Initially, it
was unclear whether any system based on this concept could achieve commercial
success. Nevertheless, Relational Software, Incorporated (RSI) began in 1977 and
released Oracle V.2 as the world’s first relational database within a couple of years.
By 1985, Oracle could claim more than 1,000 relational database customer sites.