Committee charge

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  • Since the 1980s many funds charge 12b-1 fees, which are used to pay for marketing and distribution costs and are included in the fund's expense ratio. Many funds offer multiple share classes (such as A, B, or C classes) with different combinations of loads and 12b-1 fees. To approximate the total cost of mutual fund shares, we aggregate all the costs incurred by fund shareholders using the now standard total ownership cost (TOC) measure introduced by Sirri and Tufano (1998).

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  • The charge to the NRC’s Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine (Box S-1) included an interim report that focused on the genetic makeup of Maine Atlantic salmon populations; that report was published in January 2002. The charge for the final report included a broader look at factors that have caused Maine’s salmon populations to decline and the options for helping them to recover. This is the final report.

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  • There are 4 million miles of roads in the United States. One hundred years ago, roads were primarily unpaved and had half the number of miles of the present U.S. road system. As the system grew, roads became wider and more complex structurally to provide for more and heavier traffic. New construction technology and greater structural stability were needed to improve the road system. All phases of road development—from construction and use by vehicles to maintenance—affect physical and chemical soil conditions, water flow, and air and water quality.

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  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has requested that the National Academies, through the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM), conduct a series of reviews of its research portfolio. The charge is discussed in detail in a subsequent section, but in general it is to evaluate the relevance and impact of a NIOSH research program and to provide recommendations for future research. This report contains a review and evaluation of the NIOSH Traumatic Injury (TI) Research Program.

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  • In 2005 the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) held a workshop to review the present state of technology in noise control engineering. The workshop was organized by a steering committee charged with developing a prospectus for further studies of noise-related issues in the United States and to investigate how current technologies could be used to reduce exposures to noise. The issues framed by the steering committee were subsequently considered in a series of workshops held by NAE in 2007 and 2008...

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  • To take out a loan, banks usually charge various administrative fees. Fees are usually charged for documentation, administration and similar services. Other fees and charges may also be applied. For some facilities, banks may offer other services to be purchased at the time the loan is made. Also, some loans may be insured against unemployment or the death of the borrower. There are also fees and charges that the borrower may have to pay during the life of the loan. These could include late payment charges and early repayment penalties.

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  • The charge to this committee—to envision the future of geotechnology— is at once a grand challenge and a problem. In many ways, geotechnology is a mature field having come to its majority in the last 50 years. Many serious problems have been solved. We know how to build strong foundations, safe dams, and stable roads and tunnels. We have a good understanding about the behavior and protection of groundwater, how to extract the petroleum resources, and develop a geothermal field.

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  • Even though the Committee is not currently proposing mandatory capital charges specifically for interest rate risk in the banking book, all banks must have enough capital to support the risks they incur, including those arising from interest rate risk. If supervisors determine that a bank has insufficient capital to support its interest rate risk, they must require either a reduction in the risk or an increase in the capital held to support it, or a combination of both.

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  • At the same time, however, economists were proposing effluent taxes as a policy that could both generate incentives to meet ambient quality targets and minimize the costs of doing so. Moreover, proponents of effluent fees received a receptive hearing in the political arena. The Environmental Pollution Panel of the President’s Science Advisory Committee recommended in 1965 “that careful study be given to tax-like systems in which all polluters would be subject to ‘effluent charges’ in proportion to their contribution to pollution ….

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  • The charge to the Committee on Crossing the Quality Chasm: Adaptation to Mental Health and Addictive Disorders was broad, encompassing health care for both mental and substance-use conditions, the public and private sectors, and the comprehensive range of issues addressed in the 2001 Institute of Medicine report Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. The committee was pleased to be asked to address this breadth of issues.

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  • This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge.

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  • The relative biological effectiveness of radiations of different quality is examined in detail in this report. The analyses were performed by Scientific Committee 40 of the NCRP which is charged with the responsibility for analysis and evaluation of radiobiological data relevant to radiation protection recommendations. This report is a follow-on to the previous report of Scientific Committee 40 on its evaluation of the effects of dose rate which was published in 1980 as NCRP Report No.

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  • In 1998, the National Research Council (NRC) established the Committee on Science and Mathematics Teacher Preparation (CSMTP) and charged it with identifying critical issues in existing practices and policies for K-12 teacher preparation in science and mathematics. In its Statement of Task, the NRC’s Governing Board also asked the committee to identify recommendations from professional organizations regarding teacher preparation and the quality of the K-12 teaching of science and mathematics and to examine relevant research.

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  • The principal charge to the Committee on Elementary Particle Physics in the 21st Century was to recommend priorities for the U.S. particle physics program for the next 15 years. Described in the Executive Summary and more fully presented in the Overview, the committee’s considered response is laid out in detail in the main text of this report, which begins by discussing the scientific challenges in particle physics and conveying the current status of the U.S. program and then presents the committee’s consensus on the best way to sustain a competitive and globally relevant U.S.

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  • T Preface his report and a companion website (www.nae.edu/ techlit) are the final products of a two-year study by the Committee on Technological Literacy, a group of experts on diverse subjects under the auspices of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and the Center for Education, part of the National Research Council (NRC). The committee’s charge was to begin to develop among relevant communities a common understanding of what technological literacy is, how important it is to the nation, and how it can be achieved.

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  • In response to a request from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Research Council convened a committee to assess the importance and impact of glycoscience, explore the landscape of current research, and identify the challenges that will need to be addressed to enable the field to move forward.

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  • The Committee on Gravitational Physics (CGP) was organized by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) as part of the decadal survey Physics in a New Era. The committee’s main charges were (1) to assess the achievements in gravitational physics over the last decade and (2) to identify the most promising opportunities for research in the next decade and describe the resources necessary to realize those opportunities. This report fulfills those charges.

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  • The Committee on High Energy Density Plasma Physics was established in April 2001 by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Board on Physics and Astronomy to identify scientific opportunities and develop a unifying theme for research on matter under extreme high energy density conditions.

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  • The Committee on Gravitational Physics (CGP) was organized by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA) as part of the decadal survey Physics in a New Era. The committee’s main charges were (1) to assess the achievements in gravitational physics over the last decade and (2) to identify the most promising opportunities for research in the next decade and describe the resources necessary to realize those opportunities. This report fulfills those charges....

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  • This report is the final product of a two-year study by the Committee on Assessing Technological Literacy, a group of experts on diverse subjects under the auspices of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and the Board on Testing and Assessment at the Center for Education, part of the National Research Council (NRC). The committee’s charge was to determine the most viable approach or approaches to assessing technological literacy in U.S. K–12 students, K–12 teachers, and out-of-school adults.

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