Commodity composition

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  • Shortly after my arrival at the OECD in 1996, I came upon the study by Angus Maddison “Monitoring the World Economy 1820–1992”. It is a fascinating and stimulating work providing a complete coverage of the world economy during the period in question. It brought together data of some 56 countries accounting for 93 per cent of the world output and 87 per cent of the world population and world exports. It never left my desk. Probably I was not alone in my appreciation of this quite extraordinary work, as I kept coming on references to it in the work of other authors....

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  • In 2008 food prices surged plunging millions back into hunger and triggering riots from Egypt to Haiti and Cameroon to Bangladesh. Whereas fuel prices, which also surged, have fallen back sharply food prices remain problematic with wheat, corn and soya still higher than they were 12-18 months ago. In order to understand the factors underpinning the food crisis and to assess trends, UNEP commissioned a Rapid Response team of internal and international experts. Their conclusions are presented in this report launched during UNEP’s 25th Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum.

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  • This book has two parts. The first part talks about general characteristics of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) as well as common steps that have to be taken during the accession process. Theoretical studies related to the WTO activities are also presented. Finally, Part I of this book discusses one of the most useful methods of examining economic consequences of being WTO member, namely Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Models. Part II continues analysis and shows application of CGE model to a specific case study.

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  • Sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) are investment funds owned and managed by national governments. Such funds currently manage between $1.9 and $2.9 trillion and are expected to grow to over $12 trillion by 2015. This is due to the rapid growth of commodity prices and large trade surpluses in several emerging market economies. During the second half of 2007, interest in SWFs increased as Asian and Middle Eastern SWFs, fueled by surging foreign exchange reserves, invested large sums of capital in U.S. and other Western companies.

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  • This is the second part of the book that examines process and possible economic consequences of accession to the WTO. This part considers economic impact of the WTO accession and takes specific country as a case study, namely Ukraine. Computable General Equilibrium model for Ukraine is built and several scenarios are modelled. The facts that Ukraine has sufficiently large economy and accession was finalised quite recently should make it interesting to a wide audience.

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  • Michael Minges prepared this report. Tim Kelly drafted the mobile section. Nathalie Delmas was responsible for formatting and production. The report is based on field research carried out from 3 to 6 December 2002 as well as articles and reports noted in the document. The assistance of the Office of the Telecommunication Authority, particularly M. H. Au and Sara Lam, was indispensable and highly appreciated.

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  • The store of value function is redundant in a time-0 auction and any durable asset dominates money in sequential trading versions of the auction. Strictly speaking the unit of account function is also not required but obviously selecting a numeraire would reduce the computations required even for the time-0 auction. The point is simply that given the computing power underlying the auction the unit of account function is not a necessary feature of the economy. Any commodity can act as the unit of account even one with no physical existence, but jam is as good a numeraire as any –the...

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  • An economy’s trade patterns create one channel for the cross-border transmission of shocks. While the average economy in our data had a current account very close to zero in 2007, the range is quite large. Trade openness, measured by the ratio of the sum of exports plus imports to GDP, captures the importance of trade. The average in our data is 98% of GDP, but the standard deviation of 66 percentage points implies a wide distribution. Finally, a country’s natural endowment may play a role in its macroeconomic performance.

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  • The Green Book : Current Economic Trends Overview 1. External economic situation 2. Private consumption 3. Facility investment 4. Construction investment 5. Exports and imports 6. Mining and manufacturing production 7. Service sector activity 8. Employment 9. Financial markets 9.1 Stock market 9.2 Exchange rate 9.3 Bond market 9.4 Money supply & money market 10. Balance of payments 11. Prices and international commodity prices 11.1 Prices 11.2 International oil and commodity prices 12. Real estate market 12.1 Housing market 12.2 Land market 13.

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  • Colours, too, add to a harmonious impression. They are organised in restrict- ed colour schemes, or – as they are sometimes called – colour palettes. These restricted colour combinations make use of mostly monochrome compositions, only incidentally setting colour contrasts on small areas, and function as codi- fications of an exquisite taste, underlining the luxurious touch of the commod- ity. In fact, with one exception, 8 all the commercials mentioned above clearly follow this strategy, as opposed to gaudy, screaming, and saturated colours for lower cost products....

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