In 1871, over 30 years before Alois Alzheimer published his seminal cases, James
Crichton - Browne may have been among the fi rst physicians to remark upon the
relationship between “ brain wasting ” and “ premature dotage ” in a letter to Charles
Darwin (Snyder & Pearn, 2007 ). Age - related mental deterioration as an entity had
been recognized virtually for recorded history (Boller et al., 2007 ; Mandell & Albert,
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), unlike conventional magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI), provides information on the brain’s chemical environment (rather than
neuroanatomical structure) and the data are most commonly presented as line spectra.
This capacity for determining brain metabolite concentrations provides the basis for
clinical investigation of, and differentiation between, neurological and neurosurgical
Though it is widely recognized that the population of the United States is aging,
much of our current understanding in the field of individual decision making is based on
data from student populations. While this could be a consequence of subject availability,
it may reflect a common though largely unsubstantiated belief that decision making
ability declines with aging (Peters 2000). Many older individuals are productive and
intellectually viable throughout their lives. Still, others are vulnerable to dementia and
neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Alzheimer's disease.
Abbreviations: LSD, lysergic acid diethylamide; GHB, γ-hydroxybutyrate; PCP, phencyclidine; CNS, central nervous systemPrescribed, over-the-counter, and herbal medications are common precipitants of delirium. Drugs with anticholinergic properties, narcotics, and benzodiazepines are especially frequent offenders, but nearly any compound can lead to cognitive dysfunction in a predisposed patient.
Agitation (dễ cáu gắt) is an unpleasant state of extreme arousal, increased tension, and irritability anxiety (lo lắng)
Fear or apprehension or dread of impending danger and accompanied by restlessness, tension, tachycardia, and dyspnea unattached to a clearly identifiable stimulus.
Evidence of left hemispatial neglect and simultanagnosia. A. A 47-yearold man with a large frontoparietal lesion in the right hemisphere was asked to circle all the As. Only targets on the right are circled. This is a manifestation of left hemispatial neglect. B. A 70-year-old woman with a 2-year history of degenerative dementia was able to circle most of the small targets but ignored the larger ones. This is a manifestation of simultanagnosia.Cerebrovascular lesions and neoplasms in the right hemisphere are the most common causes of hemispatial neglect.
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia and its patho-logical hallmarks include the loss of neurones through cell death, as well as
the accumulation of amyloid fibres in the form of extracellular neuritic pla-ques.