Research in tropical forestry is confronted with the task of finding strategies to alleviate pressure on remaining forests, and techniques to enhance forest regeneration and restore abandoned lands, using productive alternatives that can be attractive to local human populations. In addition, sustainable forestry in tropical countries must be supported by adequate policies to promote and maintain specific activities at local and regional scales.
The scope of this book is to demonstrate that we do have an ecosystem theory that can be
used to describe ecosystem structure and function. It was previously shown in the book,
Integration of Ecosystem Theories: A Pattern (3rd edition, 2002), that the various contributions
to systems ecology are consistent and together form a pattern of ecological
processes. My book with Yuri Svirezhev, Toward a Thermodynamic Theory of Ecosystems
(2004), presented the thermodynamics of this pattern in a mathematical language....
Chapter 54 - Community ecology. This chapter distinguish between the following sets of terms: competition, predation, herbivory, symbiosis; fundamental and realized niche; cryptic and aposematic coloration; batesian mimicry and Müllerian mimicry; parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism; endoparasites and ectoparasites; species richness and relative abundance; food chain and food web; primary and secondary succession;....
This chapter distinguish between the following sets of terms: competition, predation, herbivory, symbiosis; fundamental and realized niche; cryptic and aposematic coloration; batesian mimicry and Müllerian mimicry; parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism; endoparasites and ectoparasites; species richness and relative abundance; food chain and food web; primary and secondary succession;...
Whereas the mechanical performance of plant organs has often been discussed in
evolutionary biology [1,2], tree biomechanics has rarely been considered in the
context of functional ecology. Functional ecology aims at understanding the functions
of organisms that result in fluxes of biomass or energy within an ecosystem,
a forest. This discipline studies the processes controlling these fluxes, at either
the scale of an individual, community, or ecosystem, with their response to natural
or anthropic environmental variations....
Because of its accessibility, the intertidal zone has offered
excellent opportunities to study the adaptations of individual
organisms and populations to their environment,
and the factors controlling community composition. Early
work on seashores concentrated on the problems of life
in an environment characterized by steep gradients in
physical conditions, but in more recent years, the focus
of research on the fascinating shore ecosystems has been
on understanding the processes controlling their productivity
and dynamic functioning.
Diversity of plant form and life history and their distribution onto different habitats suggest
that plant functions should underlie this diversity, providing tools to successfully and differentially
thrive in every habitat. The knowledge of these functions is then the key to understand
community and ecosystem structure and functioning, something that attracted the
interest and effort of many plant ecologists trying to establish patterns of adaptive specialization
Forests play a major role in global carbon
(C) cycle, and the carbon density (CD) could reflect
its ecological function of C sequestration. Study on
the CD of different forest types on a community scale
is crucial to characterize in depth the capacity of
forest C sequestration.
Landscape ecology continues to grow as an exciting, dynamic ecological discipline.
With its broadscale emphasis and multidisciplinary approach, landscape
ecology lends itself both to basic research and to applications in land
management, land-use planning, wildlife management, ecosystem management,
and conservation biology.
The science of ecology and the practice of management are critical to
our understanding of the Earth’s ecosystems and our efforts to conserve
them. This book attempts to bridge the gap between ecology and natural
resource management and, in particular, focuses on the discipline of
plant ecology as a foundation for vegetation and wildlife management.
It describes how concepts and approaches used by ecologists to study
communities and ecosystems can be applied to their management. Guy
The third edition of
The Fungal Community
has been compiled by a new set of editors. The
three of us were impressed with the quality and content of the previous two editions and
hope that we have matched the work of George Carroll and Don Wicklow in this new volume.
The aims and objectives of this volume are explained in our introductory chapter,
but in brief, we have tried to address some of the current discussions in ecology (diversity
and function, scaling issues, disturbance, invasive species) from a fungal perspective.
The long-term approach to achieving protection is “ecological separation.” A true ecological
separation is defined as no inter-basin transfer of aquatic organisms via the Chicago Waterway
System at any time – 100% effectiveness. Ecological separation prohibits the movement or interbasin
transfer of aquatic organisms between the Mississippi and Great Lakes basins via the CWS.
Once established, the impacts of invasive species on ecosystem health are permanent and
Our goal in writing this book was to describe
why weeds occur where they do. We have
made no attempt to discuss their management
and control: there are excellent texts
available for that. Rather, we think that students
should understand how and why
weeds fit into their environment. This text
presents ecological principles as they relate
to weeds. Ecology is central to our understanding
of how and why weeds invade and
yet there are few books that make this connection.
That is the niche we hope to fill.
SPECIES CO-OCCURRING AT A SITE INTERACT TO VARIOUS degrees, both directly and indirectly, in ways that have intrigued ecologists since earliest times. These interactions represent mechanisms that control population dynamics, hence community structure, and also control rates of energy and matter ﬂuxes.
The last three rows demonstrated the crucial counterintuitive prediction that
small prey would be excluded from the diet, independently of their encounter
rate, if the encounter rate with large prey were above a certain quantifiable
Those were heady days! Setting aside the fact that the small prey were not
totally ignored, it seemed as though a very simple, testable model, derived from
a few starting assumptions about rate maximization and constraints on foraging,
could actually predicthowan animal responded in an experiment. It’s hard
to overstate the excitement at the time....
12 Community Ecology
Two species of gerbils, the 24 g Allenby’s gerbil and the 40 g greater sand gerbil, live together on sand dunes in the Negev Desert. These species are very much alike. They eat mostly seeds (Bar et al. 1984), they are nocturnal, they live in burrows, they are caught by the same predators, and they compete intensively with each other.
Island biogeography is an important subject for
several reasons. First, it has been and remains a
field which feeds ideas, theories, models, and tests
of same into ecology, evolutionary biology, and biogeography.
This is because islands provide natural
scientists with model systems—replicated and simplified
contexts—allowing us to isolate particular
factors and processes and to explore their effects.
Benthic algae have been intensively studied, especially over the past
two decades. This intensity has been stimulated by the widespread recognition
that benthic algae are ideal indicators of the health of many, if not
most, aquatic ecosystems. With this book we hope to synthesize this vital
area of research and share its essence with our colleagues and students. We
started with an outline of the myriad abiotic and biotic determinants of
benthic algal ecology.
In this introductory chapter, we indicate the aims
and structure of this book. We also indicate some
of the ways in which the book is not synoptic in its
coverage, but rather offers an interlinked account
of some major developments in our understanding
of the dynamics of ecological systems, from
populations to communities, along with practical
applications to important problems.
In this edited volume, global experts in ecology and evolutionary biology explore how theories in ecology elucidate the processes of invasion, while also examining how specific invasions inform ecological theory. This reciprocal benefit is highlighted in a number of scales of organization: population, community and biogeographic. The text describes example invaders in all major groups of organisms and from a number of regions around the globe.