Adolescents exposed to the interventions in Site B were more likely to support use of
contraceptives by unmarried adolescents than those in Site A, and a similar pattern was
seen for contraceptive use by married adolescents. Adolescents who were exposed to the
intervention showed more favorable attitudes regarding use of condoms by unmarried
adolescents than the non-exposed in both Site A and B. The analysis also revealed a
more positive attitude towards health facilities for contraceptive and STI services
compared with pharmacies as a source of supplies and services.
Household characteristics such as housing conditions and ownership of consumer durables serve as
indirect indicators of a household’s standard of living. Trends in these characteristics reflect a
society’s material progress, which has implications both for the economic well being and overall
health status of the population.
A comparative analysis of service statistics found that the utilization of services from
health facilities doubled in Site A and increased ten-fold in Site B, compared to the
change in utilization in Site C. Again, comparing the two intervention sites, Site B
experienced six times greater utilization of services than Site A. Thus, for most key
indicators, Strategy II produced greater improvements than did Strategy I.
On the basis of study findings, the following recommendations are made.
Short-term benefits have been noted in studies comparing immediate start of COC with
conventional start.14 In a randomised trial, those who were quick started were more likely to
start their second pack of pills (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0–2.1). However at 3 and 6 months,
continuation rates were comparable between the two groups.16 This study involved mainly
socially deprived young Latino women and therefore these findings may not translate to
other groups of women.
Over the past 2 decades the implications of endocrine disruption and modula-
tion have permeated public consciousness, scienti fi c inquiry, regulatory frame-
works, and management decisions in the environmental and biomedical sciences.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Comparative analysis of complete nucleotide sequence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolates in Thailand (US and EU genotypes)
In this Chapter we focus on the ﬁeld-theoretical description of the inﬂationary phase of
the early universe and its post-inﬂationary dynamics (reheating and particle production) in
the context of supergravity, based on the original papers (1–10). To begin with, let us ﬁrst
introduce some basics of inﬂation.
The study provides information on key reproductive and sexual health indicators in young women
and men age 15-24 in 38 developing countries. The data come from Demographic and Health Surveys
(DHS) and AIDS Indicator Surveys (AIS) conducted between 2001 and 2005. Indicators are selected for
the following key areas: background characteristics; adolescent pregnancy; contraception; sexual activity;
and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Additional analysis examines the association
of various individual and household characteristics with the key indicators.
In all regions, knowledge of any method of contraception is high among young women and nearly
universal among young men. However, knowledge of multiple methods is lower among young women
and men in sub-Saharan Africa than their counterparts in other regions. Current use of modern
contraception among married youth is lowest in sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, although sexually active,
unmarried young women are more likely to use modern contraceptive methods, they also have higher
levels of unmet need for contraception compared to currently married young women.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant swine diseases
worldwide. Despite its relevance, serum biomarkers associated with early-onset viral infection, when clinical signs
are not detectable and the disease is characterized by a weak anti-viral response and persistent infection, have not
yet been identified. Surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS)
is a reproducible, accurate, and simple method for the identification of biomarker proteins related to disease in
This question contains three related but distinct questions, all of which pivot on the
multiple meanings of ‘international’ in this context. First, why study international
family law as opposed to domestic family law? Second, why study international
family law as opposed to comparative family law? Third, why study international (i.e.
private and public) family law rather than private family law? The answers to these
questions explain the purpose, scope, and approach of this book.
Technical notes (on page 331) provide information
detailing the specific data sources for key indicators as
well as guidance for the interpretation of the statistics.
Official United Nations estimates are used for all MDG
indicators. These figures are supplemented, as necessary,
by additional standard data sources. Information on
social and political contexts and policy priorities have
been obtained from UNFPA country offices and standard
United Nations reports.
Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done to measure the effects of the interventions.
Knowledge of HIV/AIDS increased in the intervention sites compared to the control
sites, with greater improvement in Site B with the additional school-based intervention.
The knowledge of contraceptives improved in both intervention and control sites, with
the greatest improvement seen in Site A.
A Cochrane review has found limited evidence that immediate (‘quick’) start of hormonal
contraception reduces unintended pregnancies or improves continuation rates.15 None of
the studies included in the review were powered to detect contraceptive efficacy. Whilst
there is currently a paucity of evidence demonstrating effectiveness, there are data to
suggest women find quick starting acceptable.
It is possible that effectiveness may vary depending on method type.
Of course, one of the best (and most enjoyable) things that you can do to maintain your judging skills is
to continually practice by sampling a variety of beers and brewing your own beers. In addition to
visiting pubs and microbreweries, you can sample homebrew regularly by attending homebrew club
meetings. Entering beers in competitions is also a practical way to compare your flavor perception and
troubleshooting skills with those of experienced judges.
BB Agents cannot be involved in marketing, sales of any other products of the
bank (including but not limited to consumer banking products, liability products
One Agent can provide services to multiple banks provided he (the agent) has a
separate service level agreement with each bank. Alternately, banks may
organize their agent network using open architecture so that they may entertain
other banks’ customers using infrastructure provided by one bank.
Agents may not alter/change charges/fees structure provided by the bank in any
Regardless of whether the audit is done internally or externally, a common set of
methods can be used to gather data needed to make assessments about practices.
Methods are described briefly below in the context of a communications audit and then
followed by a table that compares them on time, cost, and information yield.
A robust body of literature details reproductive effects in fish,
amphibians, and reptiles related to exposure to endocrine
disruptors. Evidence of these effects has also been seen in wild
mammals such as polar bears and seals. Environmental exposure
assessments and wildlife, laboratory and epidemiologic studies
show exposure to low-level environmental contaminants, such
as pesticides and other chemicals, subtly undermines the ability
No other disease has had a similar impact on mankind in modern times compared with HIV/AIDS. HIV is a retrovirus which was unknown until. The 1980s, when the first cases of a new disease were first identified in the USA. The disease was named acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) after its most salient features, death due to infectious diseases through immunodeficiency, and has sinc then killed more than 25 million people worldwide.
In 2005, the baseline country studies pointed to a
lack of connection between advocacy for reduction
of maternal mortality in national-level planning and
the necessary linkage to effective programmatic
responses through resource allocation, capacity-
building and human-resource development.
The 2011 case-studies suggest that this problem
persists: despite a closing of the gap between
policy and programmes, the limited progress
with improving health outcomes has shown the
importance of strengthening health systems –
particularly for maternal and newborn health.