This paper presents a comparative study of five parameter estimation algorithms on four NLP tasks. Three of the five algorithms are well-known in the computational linguistics community: Maximum Entropy (ME) estimation with L2 regularization, the Averaged Perceptron (AP), and Boosting. We also investigate ME estimation with L1 regularization using a novel optimization algorithm, and BLasso, which is a version of Boosting with Lasso (L1) regularization. We first investigate all of our estimators on two re-ranking tasks: a parse selection task and a language model (LM) adaptation task. ...
This paper presents a comparative study of target dependency structures yielded by several state-of-the-art linguistic parsers. Our approach is to measure the impact of these nonisomorphic dependency structures to be used for string-to-dependency translation. Besides using traditional dependency parsers, we also use the dependency structures transformed from PCFG trees and predicate-argument structures (PASs) which are generated by an HPSG parser and a CCG parser.
Adaptive Dialogue Systems are rapidly becoming part of our everyday lives. As they progress and adopt new technologies they become more intelligent and able to adapt better and faster to their environment. Research in this ﬁeld is currently focused on how to achieve adaptation, and particularly on applying Reinforcement Learning (RL) techniques, so a comparative study of the related methods, such as this, is necessary.
A number of studies have presented machine-learning approaches to semantic role labeling with availability of corpora such as FrameNet and PropBank. These corpora deﬁne the semantic roles of predicates for each frame independently. Thus, it is crucial for the machine-learning approach to generalize semantic roles across different frames, and to increase the size of training instances.
Recently confusion network decoding shows the best performance in combining outputs from multiple machine translation (MT) systems. However, overcoming different word orders presented in multiple MT systems during hypothesis alignment still remains the biggest challenge to confusion network-based MT system combination. In this paper, we compare four commonly used word alignment methods, namely GIZA++, TER, CLA and IHMM, for hypothesis alignment.
This little volume is a contribution to the comparative study of religions. It is an endeavor to present in a critically correct light some of the fundamental conceptions which are found in the native beliefs of the tribes of America. So little has heretofore been done in this field that it has yielded a very scanty harvest for purposes of general study. It has not yet even passed the stage where the distinction between myth and tradition has been recognized. Nearly all historians continue to write about some of the American hero-gods as if they had been chiefs of...
In statistical machine translation, the generation of a translation hypothesis is computationally expensive. If arbitrary wordreorderings are permitted, the search problem is NP-hard. On the other hand, if we restrict the possible word-reorderings in an appropriate way, we obtain a polynomial-time search algorithm. In this paper, we compare two different reordering constraints, namely the ITG constraints and the IBM constraints.
The first purpose is to remind students of English of the values of directness and indirectness in aspects of life and career as discussing about the importance of directness and indirectness. Secondly, a general summary about directness and indirectness is given to provide people with a firm foundation about directness and indirectness. Thirdly, directness in English as well as indirectness in Vietnamese is investigated to find out similarities and differences between the two.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế về bệnh thú y đề tài: Comparative studies on pheno- and genotypic properties of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis in central Java in Indonesia and Hesse in Germany
A Comparative Study of returns to education and the Importance of Genetic and Environment Factors: Evidence from Different twins data It thus seems likely
that the character of equilibrium will depend crucially on the particular institutions of any
choice program. Further research with large-scale voucher programs will be needed to
determine whether administrators of effective schools are rewarded by increased demand in
the choice regimes that these policies create.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Comparative study on saponin fractions from Panax notoginseng inhibiting inflammation-induced endothelial adhesion molecule expression and monocyte adhesion...
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí hóa học quốc tế đề tài : Does quality of life among breast cancer survivors one year after diagnosis differ depending on urban and non-urban residence? A comparative study
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học quốc tế đề tài : Comparison of a minimally invasive posterior approach and the standard posterior approach for total hip arthroplasty A prospective and comparative study
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: A comparative study of non-covalent encapsulation methods for organic dyes into silica nanoparticles
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp đề tài: Macronutrients in tree stems and foliage: a comparative study of six temperate forest species planted at the same sites...