This work is concerned with the space of alignments searched by word alignment systems. We focus on situations where word re-ordering is limited by syntax. We present two new alignment spaces that limit an ITG according to a given dependency parse. We provide D-ITG grammars to search these spaces completely and without redundancy. We conduct a careful comparison of ﬁve alignment spaces, and show that limiting search with an ITG reduces error rate by 10%, while a D-ITG produces a 31% reduction. ...
This emphasis on the spectacular and exotic, consistent with an oppositional or
marginal view of the consumer, is often also emphasised in academic writing on
counterfeiting. Consumers of counterfeits are often represented through anecdotal
narratives which serve as a proxy for deeper understanding of consumer motivations.
For example, Lasica (2005) illustrates his work with case studies which potentially
confuse everyday users with vanguard consumers.
In this article, compound processing for translation into German in a factored statistical MT system is investigated. Compounds are handled by splitting them prior to training, and merging the parts after translation. I have explored eight merging strategies using different combinations of external knowledge sources, such as word lists, and internal sources that are carried through the translation process, such as symbols or parts-of-speech. I show that for merging to be successful, some internal knowledge source is needed.
There is increasing recognition of the fact that the entire range of dependencies that transformational grammars in their various incarnations h a v e t r i e d t o a c c o u n t f o r c a n be satisfactorily captured by classes of rules that are non-transformational and at the same Clme highly constrlaned in terms of the classes of grammars and languages that they define .
We compare the phenomena of clausal coordinate ellipsis in Estonian, a Finno-Ugric language, and German, an Indo-European language. The rules underlying these phenomena appear to be remarkably similar. Thus, the software module ELLEIPO, which was originally developed to generate clausal coordinate ellipsis in German and Dutch, works for Estonian as well. In order to extend ELLEIPO’s coverage to Estonian, we only had to adapt the lexicon and some syntax rules unrelated to coordination.
We compare the effectiveness of two related • machine translation models applied to the same limited-domain task. One is a transfer model with monolingual head automata for analysis and generation; the other is a direct transduction model based on bilingual head transducers. We conclude that the head transducer model is more effective according to measures of accuracy, computational requirements, model size, and development effort.
"The value of luxury brand names in the fashion industry" presentation of content: What is a Brand, brands in the fashion industry, valuation of brands, comparison of coach and hermès, valuation models, conclusion. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo nội dung chi tiết
We describe experiments with a Naive Bayes text classifier in the context of anti- spam E-mail filtering, using two different statistical event models: a multi-variate Bernoulli model and a multinomial model. We introduce a family of feature ranking functions for feature selection in the multinomial event model that take account of the word frequency information. We present evaluation results on two publicly available corpora of legitimate and spam E-mails.
The trend in information retrieval systems is from document to sub-document retrieval, such as sentences in a summarization system and words or phrases in question-answering system. Despite this trend, systems continue to model language at a document level using the inverse document frequency (IDF). In this paper, we compare and contrast IDF with inverse sentence frequency (ISF) and inverse term frequency (ITF). A direct comparison reveals that all language models are highly correlated; however, the average ISF and ITF values are 5.5 and 10.4 higher than IDF. ...
In this paper we compare two approaches to natural language understanding (NLU). The first approach is derived from the field of statistical machine translation (MT), whereas the other uses the maximum entropy (ME) framework. Starting with an annotated corpus, we describe the problem of NLU as a translation from a source sentence to a formal language target sentence. We mainly focus on the quality of the different alignment and ME models and show that the direct ME approach outperforms the alignment templates method. ...
Currently several grammatical formalisms converge towards being declarative and towards utilizing context-free phrase-structure grammar as a backbone, e.g. L F G and PATR-II. Typically the processing of these formalisms is organized within a chart-parsing framework. The declarative character of the formalisms makes it important to decide upon an overall optimal control strategy on the part of the processor. In particular, this brings the ruleinvocation strategy into criticalfocus: to gain maximal processing efficiency, one has to determine the best way of putting the rules to use.
This book addresses the stochastic modeling of telecommunication networks, introducing the main mathematical tools for that purpose, such as Markov processes, real and spatial point processes and stochastic recursions, and presenting a wide list of results on stability, performances and comparison of systems.
The authors propose a comprehensive mathematical construction of the foundations of stochastic network theory: Markov chains, continuous time Markov chains are extensively studied using an original martingale-based approach.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Modeling Signal Transduction Leading to Synaptic Plasticity: Evaluation and Comparison of Five Models
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Radiation Oncology cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: A comparison of dose-response characteristics of four NTCP models using outcomes of radiationinduced optic neuropathy and retinopathy...
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Comparison of regression models for estimation of isometric wrist joint torques using surface electromyography
In the next section, we offer an overview of the economic logic behind microfinance
institutions, describe how the movement from socially oriented non-profit microfinance
institutions to for-profit microfinance has occurred, and lay out some of the unanswered
questions about the role of commercialization in microfinance. We then seek answers to some of
these questions by drawing on a data set that includes most of the world’s leading microfinance
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Comparison of hyperthermia and adrenaline to enhance the intratumoral accumulation of cisplatin in a murin model of peritoneal carcinomatosis
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Comparison of Radioimmuno and Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistor Assays for Measuring Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 in a Preclinical Model of Human Breast Cancer
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học quốc tế đề tài : Comparison of the effects of vitamin D products in a psoriasis plaque test and a murine psoriasis xenograft model