Xem 1-8 trên 8 kết quả Competing hypotheses
  • This volume pulls together and republishes, with some editing, updating, and additions, articles written during 1978-86 for internal use within the CIA Directorate of Intelligence. Four of the articles also appeared in the Intelligence Community journal Studies in Intelligence during that time frame. The information is relatively timeless and still relevant to the never-ending quest for better analysis. The articles are based on reviewing cognitive psychology literature concerning how people process information to make judgments on incomplete and ambiguous information.

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  • Chapter 3 ECONOMIC AND ECONOMETRIC MICHAEL D. INTRILIGATOR The comparison of different hypotheses, i.e. of competing models, is the basis of model specification. It may be performed along two main lines. The first one consists in associating with each model a loss function and in retaining the specification

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  • Chapter 15 APPROXIMATING THE DISTRIBUTIONS OF ECONOMETRIC ESTIMATORS AND TEST STATISTICS THOMAS J. ROTHENBERG The comparison of different hypotheses, i.e. of competing models, is the basis of model specification. It may be performed along two main lines.

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  • Chupter I I ESTIMATION FOR DIRTY DATA AND FLAWED MODELS The comparison of different hypotheses, i.e. of competing models, is the basis of model specification. It may be performed along two main lines. The first one consists in associating with each model a loss function and in retaining the specification

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  • Chapter 44 TESTING NON-NESTED HYPOTHESES The comparison of different hypotheses, i.e. of competing models, is the basis of model specification. It may be performed along two main lines. The first one consists in associating with each model a loss function and in retaining the specification

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  • Competing geophysical/geochemical hypotheses for how Earth’s surface became oxygenated – organic carbon burial, hydrogen escape to space, and changes in the redox state of volcanic gases – are examined and a more biologically-based hypothesis is offered in response. It is argued that compared to the modern oxygenated world, organic carbon burial is of minor importance to the accumulation of oxygen in a mainly anoxic world where aerobic respiration is not globally significant. Thus, for the Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event (GOE) ~ 2.

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  • We introduce a stochastic grammatical channel model for machine translation, that synthesizes several desirable characteristics of both statistical and grammatical machine translation. As with the pure statistical translation model described by Wu (1996) (in which a bracketing transduction grammar models the channel), alternative hypotheses compete probabilistically, exhaustive search of the translation hypothesis space can be performed in polynomial time, and robustness heuristics arise naturally from a language-independent inversiontransduction model. ...

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  • This paper presents a cooperative consultation system on a restricted domain. The system builds hypotheses on the user's plan and avoids misunderstandings (with consequent repair dialogues) through clarification dialogues in case of ambiguity. The role played by constraints in the generation of the answer is characterized in order to limit the cases of ambiguities requiring a clarification dialogue. The answers of the system are generated at different levels of detail, according to the user's competence in the domain. ...

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