Complex biological

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  • The explosion of new technologies in the post-genomic era is allowing the study of biological systems on a genome-wide scale, at the main functional genomic levels: (epi)-genome, transcriptome, proteome, endo- and exometabolome, and their interactions. At the same time that these techniques are being applied and refined, the complexity of biological systems is being rediscovered (1) with thousands of components (e.g., genes, transcripts, proteins, metabolites) participating in finely tuned metabolic and regulatory networks.

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  • The biological sciences have become more quantitative and information-driven since emerging computational and mathematical tools facilitate collection and analysis of vast amounts of biological data. Complexity analysis of biological systems provides biological knowledge for the organization, management, and mining of biological data by using advanced computational tools. The biological data are inherently complex, nonuniform, and collected at multiple temporal and spatial scales.

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  • This volume is the first book-length survey of caveolae and lipid rafts. Interest has developed rapidly in the role of these surface microdomains in such diverse fields as transmembrane signaling, cell locomotion, vascular relaxation, senescence, and the uptake and exit from cells of viruses and bacteria. Individual chapters in this volume cover areas as diverse as the forces that induce and maintain membrane invaginations, and the clinical relevance of multiprotein complexes at the cell surface, defects in which are associated with cancer, and Alzheimer’s and prion-dependent diseases....

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  • Work on Deisboeck and Kresh's Complex Systems Science in BioMedicine started years ago. In fact, thoughts and ideas leading up to this textbook date back to our first conversation, sometime in the fall of 1996. We quickly found common ground, and talked about emergence and self-organization and their relevance for medicine. We were both fascinated by the idea of complexity and marveled about its tremendous possibilities for cancer research, which was then and still is Tom's main scientific interest. Much has happened in science and technology since we first discussed our vision.

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  • The Penguin Dictionary of Biology defines some 6,000 terms relating to this rich, complex, and constantly expanding subject?from amino acids, bacteria, and the cell cycle to X-ray diffraction, Ychromosomes, and zygotes. Long established as the definitive single-volume source, the dictionary has now been extensively updated for its eleventh edition.

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  • Tumor angiogenesis is a complex process involving many different cell types that must proliferate, migrate, invade, and differentiate in response to signals from the tumor microenvironment. Endothelial cells (ECs) sprout from host vessels in response to VEGF, bFGF, Ang2, and other proangiogenic stimuli. Sprouting is stimulated by VEGF/VEGFR2, Ang2/Tie-2, and integrin/extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

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  • The extracellular matrix (ECM) represents a complex organization of macromolecules that surrounds the cell and comprises the substratum onto which the cell may be attached. The properties and functions of the ECM depend ultimately on its structure, molecular components, architecture, and dynamic modulation. Because the critical role of ECM involved in cell biology and physiology has long been recognized, the structure and biology of the ECM have been extensively studied (Yurchenco and Birk 1994 ; Ayad et al. 1998 ; Robert 2001 ) .

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  • As we were at pains to point out in the companion volume to this monograph, entitled Complexity in Chemistry: Introduction and Fundamentals, complexity is to be encountered just about everywhere. All that is needed for us to see it is a suitably trained eye and it then appears almost magically in all manner of guises. Because of its ubiquity, complexity has been and currently still is being defined in a number of different ways. Some of these definitions have led us to major and powerful new insights.

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  • The timing of the publication of this book couldn’t be better as we celebrate the 50th anniversary of Charles Elton’s seminal book, The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. Since this influential book was published in 1958, the study of bioinvasions has developed exponentially, alongside the exponential growth in the magnitude of the invasion problem itself. Today, bioinvasion, a highly complex ecological process and environmental concern, has become a specific branch in ecology and environmental studies, with many disciplines developing within it....

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  • In response to requests from Congress, NASA asked the National Research Council to undertake a decadal survey of life and physical sciences in microgravity. Developed in consultation with members of the life and physical sciences communities, the guiding principle for the study is to set an agenda for research for the next decade that will allow the use of the space environment to solve complex problems in life and physical sciences so as to deliver both new knowledge and practical benefits for humankind as we become a spacefaring people.

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  • Using the broadest possible definition, a lipid (Greek lipos = fat ) may be defined as a compound of low or intermediate molecular weight (5000), a substantial proportion of which is made up of hydrocarbons. Included are diverse compounds such as fatty acids; soaps; detergents; steroids; mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols; and more complex compounds such as phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides.

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  • Conserving biodiversity is a daunting and complex task. Perhaps no species presents a greater challenge than the giant panda – one of the most recognized and threatened animals on the planet. Its difficult-to-traverse, mountainous habitat in China makes quantifying population numbers in the wild exceedingly difficult. Despite a recent survey suggesting that the wild population may be growing, there is no disagreement that the primary threat is severely fragmented habitat.

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  • From microorganisms to whales, from single cells to complex organisms, from plants to animals to fungi, from body plans to behavior, the diversity of life is amazing. Living organisms have a profound impact on our physical world of ocean, landscape, and climate; around us is a multitude of diverse ecosystems that provide a livable environment and many valuable resources. The study of life—biology—is a multifaceted endeavor that uses observation, exploration, and experiments to gather information and test hypotheses about topics ranging from climate change to stem cells.

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  • What makes populations stabilize? What makes them fluctuate? Are populations in complex ecosystems more stable than populations in simple ecosystems? In 1973, Robert May addressed these questions in this classic book. May investigated the mathematical roots of population dynamics and argued-counter to most current biological thinking-that complex ecosystems in themselves do not lead to population stability.

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  • (BQ) Ebook Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology test consists of approximately 180 multiple-choice questions, a number of which are grouped in sets toward the end of the test and based on descriptions of laboratory situations, diagrams, or experimental results.

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  • Acetylation of the amino terminus of the core histones H3 and H4 induces an open chromatin conformation that promotes transcription initiation. Histone acetylases are components of coactivator complexes recruited to promoter/enhancer regions by sequence-specific transcription factors during the activation of genes (Fig. 80-4). Histone deacetylases (HDACs; at least 17 are encoded in the human genome) are recruited to genes by transcriptional repressors and prevent the initiation of gene transcription.

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  • There is a large, complex and dynamic set of linkages between agriculture and water. Irrigated agriculture makes a substantial contribution to the growth in agricultural production across many countries. Yet, agriculture can have significant impacts (both positive and negative) on water ecosystems, and both agriculture and water are becoming increasingly vulnerable to climate change. In most OECD countries, agriculture is the major consumer of water and a significant source of diffuse water pollution.

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  • Since the first production of tools at the beginning of human presence on Earth, human evolution is linked to the invention of new tools, usually combined with new environmental adaptations. The symbiosis of man with tools and environments represents one of the main factors in human evolutionary processes. It is evident how this coupling is based on the biophysics of our bodies and the development of the social memory system called culture.

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  • Concerns have grown that financial conflicts of interest in research, derived from financial relationships and the financial interests they create, may affect the rights and welfare of human subjects in research. Financial interests are not prohibited, and not all financial interests cause conflicts of interest or affect the rights and welfare of human subjects. HHS recognizes the complexity of the relationships between government, academia, industry and others, and recognizes that these relationships often legitimately include financial relationships.

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  • Since the early 1990s, the United States has been concerned about the diversion of expertise and sensitive information from the nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons complexes of the former Soviet Union (FSU). This documented briefing offers an assessment of the threat of diversion from the FSU and examine

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