his monograph presents methods for full comparative distributional analysis based on the relative distribution. This provides a general integrated framework for analysis, a graphical component that simplifies exploratory data analysis and display, a statistically valid basis for the development of hypothesis-driven summary measures, and the potential for decomposition - enabling the examination of complex hypotheses regarding the origins of distributional changes within and between groups.
Hierarchical HMM (HHMM) parsers make promising cognitive models: while they use a bounded model of working memory and pursue incremental hypotheses in parallel, they still achieve parsing accuracies competitive with chart-based techniques. This paper aims to validate that a right-corner HHMM parser is also able to produce complexity metrics, which quantify a reader’s incremental difﬁculty in understanding a sentence.
The last twenty years of the last millennium are characterized by complex automatization
of industrial plants. Complex automatization of industrial plants means a
switch to factories, automatons, robots and self adaptive optimization systems. The
mentioned processes can be intensified by introducing mathematical methods into
all physical and chemical processes
As science, ecology is often accused of being weak because of its basic lack of
predictive power (Peters 1991) and the many ecological concepts judged vague
or tautological (Shrader-Frechette and McCoy 1993). Also, important paradigms
that dominated the ecological scene for years have been discarded in
favor of new concepts and theories that swamp the most recent ecological
literature (e.g., the abandoning of the island biogeography theory in favor of
the metapopulations theory; Hanski and Simberloff 1997).
Thus, the present work focuses mainly on the neural correlates of visual aesthetic
preference. Despite the limited scope of the results produced within this line of
research and the current absence of a solid grounding framework, there are already
several new studies being carried out, making an integrative framework much more
urgent. Thus, the main objective of the present work is to begin the construction
of this scaffolding by suggesting a series of testable hypotheses based on existing
Motor vehicles, like most machines, have a general bilateral symmetry. Only hypotheses can be advanced to explain why this occurs. Certainly to have a symmetry plane simpliﬁes the study of the dynamic behavior of the system, for it can be modelled, within certain limits, using uncoupled equations. However, the reason is likely to be above all an aesthetic one: symmetry is considered an essential feature in most deﬁnitions of beauty.
Cells respond to environmental cues through a complex and dynamic
network of signaling pathways that normally maintain a critical balance
between cellular proliferation, differentiation, senescence, and death. One
current research challenge is to identify those aberrations in signal transduction
that directly contribute to a loss of this division-limited equilibrium and
the progression to malignant transformation. The study of cell-signaling molecules
in this context is a central component of cancer research.
From microorganisms to whales, from single cells to complex organisms,
from plants to animals to fungi, from body plans to behavior, the diversity
of life is amazing. Living organisms have a profound impact on our
physical world of ocean, landscape, and climate; around us is a multitude
of diverse ecosystems that provide a livable environment and many valuable
resources. The study of life—biology—is a multifaceted endeavor that uses
observation, exploration, and experiments to gather information and test
hypotheses about topics ranging from climate change to stem cells.
Although adequate models of human language for syntactic analysis and semantic interpretation are of at least contextfree complexity, for applications such as speech processing in which speed is important finite-state models are often preferred. These requirements may be reconciled by using the more complex grammar to automatically derive a finite-state approximation which can then be used as a filter to guide speech recognition or to reject many hypotheses at an early stage of processing.
Nitrogen monoxide (NO) is a cytotoxic eﬀector molecule produced by macrophages that results in Fe mobilization from tumour target cells which inhibits DNA synthesis and mitochondrial respiration. It is well known that NO has a high aﬃnity for Fe, and we showed that NO-mediated Fe mobilization is markedly potentiated by glutathione (GSH) generated by the hexose monophosphate shunt [Watts, R.N. & Richardson, D.R. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 4724–4732]. We hypothesized that GSH completes the coordination shell of an NO–Fe complex that is released from the cell.
This paper presents Archivus, a multimodal language-enabled meeting browsing and retrieval system. The prototype is in an early stage of development, and we are currently exploring the role of natural language for interacting in this relatively unfamiliar and complex domain. We brieﬂy describe the design and implementation status of the system, and then focus on how this system is used to elicit useful data for supporting hypotheses about multimodal interaction in the domain of meeting retrieval and for developing NLP modules for this speciﬁc domain. ...
By virtue of the dynamic nature of the scientific process, the description of the type, pathogenesis and treatment of a disease is always a work in progress. The complex nature of any disease can similarly be unveiled through understanding the historical context of our current understanding, examining prevailing hypotheses, and extrapolating horizons for new research. For better development of this book, the main objective was to provide insights on the types, causes, and treatments of psoriasis.