Complexity of governance

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  • In the aftermath of the 2008-09 global financial and economic crisis, businesses and firms today face a totally different landscape than their counterparts in the past decade or so.

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  • This paper investigates the commonly held belief that government spending is normally financed through a combination of taxes and bond sales. The argument is a technical one and requires a detailed analysis of reserve accounting at the central bank. After carefully considering the complexities of reserve accounting, it is argued that the proceeds from taxation and bond sales are technically incapable of financing government spending and that modern governments actually finance all of their spending through the direct creation of high-powered money.

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  • outh Africa´s fourth non-racial democratic election in 2009 caps fifteen years of state transformation. This period has been marked by unprecedented changes in state institutional architecture and policies governing the functioning of state organs, the complexity of which have been periodically reviewed by government.

    pdf0p quatet 08-01-2013 15 1   Download

  • The professional practice of counseling and mental health has become overly complex and litigious. Public outcry over recent corporate and government scandals has led to a proliferation of litigation and has fueled calls for increased ethics training and accountability for management professionals. Not surprisingly, scrutiny of ethical practice has extended beyond business and government to all professional sectors, including the mental health profession.

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  • Security is now and has always been the primary function of government. All societies require some form of law enforcement capability to function effectively. Throughout history, governments of all types have relied on either public police agencies or informal means to effect conformity to social norms, standards, and laws. Given how essential law enforcement is to society, it is surprising how little we really know about how it actually functions. The job of law enforcement is always complex and sometimes dangerous.

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  • The need for more rigorous and systematic research in public administration has grown as the complexity of problems in government and nonprofit organizations has increased. This book describes and explains the use of research methods that will strengthen the research efforts of those solving government and nonprofit problems. This book is aimed primarily at those studying research methods in masters and doctoral level courses in curricula that concern the public and nonprofit sector.

    pdf673p hyperion75 15-01-2013 33 9   Download

  • The need for more rigorous and systematic research in public administration has grown as the complexity of problems in government and nonprofit organizations has increased. This book describes and explains the use of research methods that will strengthen the research efforts of those solving government and nonprofit problems. This book is aimed primarily at those studying research methods in masters and doctoral level courses in curricula that concern the public and nonprofit sector.

    pdf992p hyperion75 15-01-2013 22 9   Download

  • A key task for any interdisciplinary field such as law and development is to determine what each discipline aims to gain fromits interaction with the other. Law and development certainly seeks to ensure that development considerations are taken into account by lawyers, and that legal considerations are taken into account by those who study development.

    pdf285p namde02 12-03-2013 36 9   Download

  • Measure risk: Accurate and timely measurement of risk is essential to effective risk management. A bank that does not have risk measurement tools has limited ability to control or monitor risk levels. Further, more sophisticated measurement tools are needed as the complexity of the risk increases. A bank should periodically test to make sure that the measurement tools it uses are accurate.

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  • The Single Market needs to continue to adapt to reach the potential for businesses and consumers in a borderless Europe. Technological change offers huge possibilities, but it needs to be accompanied by new approaches in areas like procurement, standards, and intellectual property. The EU needs a long-term framework for energy and climate policies so that investment and policy target competitiveness and tackle climate change.

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  • Some businesses are subject to ongoing special regulation. These industries include, for example, public utilities, investment securities, banking, insurance, broadcasting, aviation, and health care providers. Environmental regulations are also very complex and can affect many kinds of businesses in unexpected ways.

    pdf1139p ngoctu2391 28-11-2012 18 5   Download

  • The core of this chapter is a discussion of EITC-related behavioral issues and research. Section 3.3 provides EITC program statistics. As would be expected with a program that has more than tripled in size (in real dollars) in the 1990s, a considerable amount of attention has been paid to the EITC in recent years. In section 3.4, we outline the conceptual underpinnings of much of this recent work and discuss EITC participation and compliance, its effects on labor force participation and hours of work, marriage and fer- tility, skill formation, and consumption.

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  • One of the key economic functions of credit institutions is to convert short- term deposits into long-term loans. Depending on the scale of this maturity transformation – which essentially determines the risk arising from a bank’s balance sheet structure – sharply fl uctuating market interest rates can have a considerable impact on banks’ earnings and on their capital base. The increas- ing complexity of markets makes effective processes for measuring and man- aging interest rate exposure an essential business requirement for credit insti- tutions.

    pdf51p taisaovanchuavo 23-01-2013 15 4   Download

  • One of the major challenges for all stakeholders in thinking about the future of the Internet is its ability to scale to connect billions of people and devices. The objective of this report is to raise awareness among policy makers of capacity and limitations of the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), to provide information on the status of readiness and deployment of the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) and to demonstrate the need for all stakeholders, including governments, to play a part in IPv6 deployment.

    pdf71p bin_pham 05-02-2013 20 4   Download

  • More companies are designing solutions to address data governance and ensure regulatory compliance by reducing data movement. These companies rely on the security and auditing features of the DBMS to ensure that regulated data is not improperly accessed during automated business processes. Requiring large amounts of detail data to be extracted from the DBMS for processing by SAS raises the complexity of maintaining regulatory compliance. This can be particularly challenging for data preparation processes.

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  • Both cross-border and domestic bank credit are (generally) denominated in multiple currencies. The BIS international banking statistics in combination with domestic bank credit data from the IMF’s International Financial Statistics, along with some assumptions, yield an estimate of the currency breakdown of total credit to non-banks (either including or excluding bank credit to governments) in a particular country. This breakdown allows us to express credit stocks at constant exchange rates (in this particular case, end-Q2 2011 rates).

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  • Whether allowed or not to lend, what is at stake today is finally a change in the mindset of people who steer the global microfinance agenda. State-owned banks (e.g; BRAC in Bangladesh, BRI Indonesia, Nabard India and GSB in Thailand) are the largest microcredit providers in Asia and are recognised and accepted as such although in some cases they administer subsidised government funds. African savings banks certainly need support in their endeavour to respond to the huge underserved market and most particularly to address the pressing demand from their clients.

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  • Concerns have grown that financial conflicts of interest in research, derived from financial relationships and the financial interests they create, may affect the rights and welfare of human subjects in research. Financial interests are not prohibited, and not all financial interests cause conflicts of interest or affect the rights and welfare of human subjects. HHS recognizes the complexity of the relationships between government, academia, industry and others, and recognizes that these relationships often legitimately include financial relationships.

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  • The phenomenon of judicialization is attracting increasing attention in socio-legal studies. In a wide variety of countries and settings, courts and court-like processes are playing an increasingly important role in politics and society. The causes of this trend are complex, and not completely understood. Nor, we are quick to point out, is the trend a universal one. Nevertheless, we believe the growing role of courts is significant enough to warrant further examination.

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  • EGovernment means different things for different people. Some simply d efine it as digital governmental information or a way of engaging in digital transactions with customers. For others eGovernment simply consists of the creation of a web site where information about political and governmental issues is presented. These narrow ways of defining and conceptualizing eGovernment restrict the range of opportunities it offers.

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