Composition bias

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  • Each household member records spending for the same two diary weeks, so we must pool observations across households to study expenditures over an entire month. Given that distance from payday is orthogonal to household characteristics, this pooling should not bias our estimate of the relationship between distance and spending.8 We impose a number of sample restrictions. People paid weekly are excluded, because every diary week includes a payday for these individuals.

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  • Special care has been taken to eliminate the survivorship bias inherent in the Bankscope database. Bureau van Dijk deletes historical information on banks that no longer exist in the latest release of this database. For example, the 2004 release of Bankscope does not contain information on banks that no longer exist in 2004 but did exist in previous years. 7 We address the survivorship bias in Bankscope by reassembling the panel data set by hand from individual cross-sections using historical, archived releases of the database.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Variation in the Correlation of G + C Composition with Synonymous Codon Usage Bias among Bacteria

    pdf7p dauphong19 07-03-2012 14 3   Download

  • The study of DNA advanced human knowledge in a way comparable to the major theories in physics, surpassed only by discoveries such as fire or the number zero. However, it also created conceptual shortcuts, beliefs and misunderstandings that obscure the natural phenomena, hindering its better understanding. The deep conviction that no human knowledge is perfect, but only perfectible, should function as a fair safeguard against scientific dogmatism and enable open discussion. With this aim, this book will offer to its readers 30 chapters on current trends in the field of DNA replication.

    pdf0p camchuong_1 04-12-2012 21 2   Download

  • Comparative analysis of genome sequence data from mesophilic and hyperthermophilic micro-organisms has revealed a strong bias against specific thermolabile aminoacid residues (i.e. N and Q) in hyperthermophilic proteins. The N þ Q content of class II xylose isomerases (XIs) from mesophiles, moderate thermophiles, and hyperthermophiles was examined.

    pdf11p system191 01-06-2013 12 2   Download

  • Swiatkowska-Warkocka et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:226 NANO EXPRESS Open Access Controlling exchange bias in Fe3O4/FeO composite particles prepared by pulsed laser irradiation Zaneta Swiatkowska-Warkocka*, Kenji Kawaguchi, Hongqiang Wang, Yukiko Katou, Naoto Koshizaki Abstract Spherical iron oxide nanocomposite particles composed of magnetite and wustite have been successfully synthesized using a novel method of pulsed laser irradiation in ethyl acetate.

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  • It has long been realized that while absolute measures of firm growth lead to a bias towards large firms, relative growth measures lead to a bias towards small firms (Acs et al., 2008; Schreyer, 2000). Due to the wide-spread use of the absolute and relative measures, we use these two measures for all growth indicators in the empirical analysis. We also apply the so- called composite index, i.e., the combination of employment growth measured in absolute and relative numbers, as growth measurement in order to relate to previous literature (see table 1).

    pdf56p trinhcaidat 22-04-2013 21 2   Download


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