Compounds analysis

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  • Consumer concerns on food safety and society awareness of chemical contaminants in the environment have increased in the past few years. As a consequence, more restrictions in the use of chemical products have been imposed at national and international levels. Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since after Second World War, with the discovery of some organic compounds with good insecticide or herbicide activity. At present, around 2.

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  • Introduction: Small amount of drugs and poisons incorporated into human bodies are hidden among large amounts of biological components, such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and membranes. It is not easy to detect only a target compound from such complicated matrices. Before instrumental analysis, extraction procedure is usually essential and very important.

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  • Introduction: Phencyclidine (PCP) ( Fig. 8.1), a synthetic arylcyclohexylamine hallucinogen, had been first applied as an anaesthetic to animals and then to humans for a short period. PCP is known by street names of “angel dust” and “crystal”. Illicit use of PCP first appeared during mid-1960s along the West Coast, and then peaked in the United States in 1979; illicit PCP use declined by 1992. However, daily use of PCP has remained stable among young school seniors over the past decade; PCP is thus being an important drug of abuse [1–3].

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  • Introduction: Pentazocine ( Fig. 5.1) is a non-narcotic analgesic, but shows mild dependence; there are many cases of pentazocine abuse especially for medical and co-medical workers. The drug is being regulated as a subclass compound of narcotics (DEA class: IV). Pentazocine in both antemortem and postmortem specimens is being analyzed by GC [1–4], HPLC [5–7] and GC/MS [8]. In this chapter, a simple method for GC/MS analysis of pentazocine in human whole blood and urine is presented. ⊡ Figure 5.1 Structures of pentazocine and dextromethorphan (IS).

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  • Introduction: The chemical warfare agents well known count only about 30 kinds of compounds, such as sarin, soman, tabun, VX, mustard gas, lewisite and others. When unknown toxic substances should be analyzed upon the occurrence of chemical terrorism, much more kinds of poisons and related compounds become the objects of analysis. In the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)a, 120 thousand compoundsb, including typical chemical warfare agents, their related compounds, precursors and decomposition products, are being listed to be controlled.

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  • The nature of annuities and their potential to be considered both insurance and in- vestment products complicated attempts during this study to differentiate annuities sold by insurance companies as insurance products from those annuities that qualify solely as investment products that happened to be sold by insurance companies. The SAR narratives reference annuities in the manner portrayed in Table 7.

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  • The Project Gutenberg EBook of An Introductory Course of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, by Henry P. Talbot This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title: An Introductory Course of Quantitative Chemical Analysis With Explanatory Notes Author: Henry P. Talbot Release Date: June 30, 2004

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  • Introduction: Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, lysergide) is known as one of the most powerful hallucinogenic drugs of abuse. LSD was explosively abused in U.S.A. in the latter half of the 1960s. In Japan, the amount of seizure of LSD is much smaller than that of methamphetamine. However, in recent years, it has been increasing markedly; 3,500 tablets of LSD were seized in 1996, while 53,043 tablets in 2000 (about 15-fold increase), arousing a serious concern about the phenomenon. LSD is a compound chemically modified from ergot alkaloid produced by a bacterium Claviceps purpurea.

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  • Introduction: Determination of methemoglobin (Met-Hb) in blood is important for the diagnosis of poisoning by oxidants, such as nitrite, nitrate, chlorate, chlorite, alkyl nitrites, nitroglycerin, aniline and other compounds. In 1938, Evelyn and Malloy [1] had devised a photoelectric method for determination of Met-Hb in blood. Minor modifications of this method were made by several researchers to increase sensitivity [2–4]. These methods are based on a phenomenon that the absorbance maximum of weakly acidic Met-Hb at 630 nm disappears by addition of cyanide.

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  • Introduction: Nicotine is a main water-soluble alkaloid being contained in the tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum), which acts as an inducing compound for smoking-dependence. Twelve kinds of nicotine metabolites are known in rats [1]. Among them, cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine; the half-life (T1/2) of cotinine is much longer (10–20 h) than that of nicotine (24–84 min). The qualitative analysis of cotinine in urine and saliva is being thus carried out as indicators for smoking during its abstinence therapy and for confirming passive smoking.

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  • Introduction: An organophosphorus nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate, Figure 2.1) shows potent inhibitory action on acetylcholinesterase; its development, production, stockpiling and use are being prohibited by the CWC international treaty as a chemical weapon together with those of sarin and soman. In addition, even material compounds for VX synthesis are being also controlled strictly. In the world history, there had been no records on the use of VX in any international dispute.

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  • 8.4 II.8.4 Arsenic compounds and other inorganic poisons by Sinichi Suzuki and Yasuhiro Suzuki Introduction The Wakayama Curry Poisoning Incident taking place in August 1998, followed by various imitative poisoning incidents, is still fresh in our memory, because they gave a severe shock and anxiety to the Japanese society. The poison, which had been used in the Wakayama Curry Poisoning Incident was an arsenitea, a classical poison.

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  • Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics and Department of Finance. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign .

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  • Introduction: Nitrate and nitrite compounds are being used for various purposes, such as coronary artery dilators, coloring reagents for meat, rust preventives, fertilizers and explosives. When a nitrate salt is ingested by a human, nitric acid is converted into nitrous acid by the action of nitric acidreducing bacteria inhabiting the upper digestive tract; the nitrous acid oxidizes the divalent ferrous ion of hemoglobin to produce methemoglobin a with the trivalent ferric ion.

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  • Thermal Analysis is a well-established set of techniques for obtaining qualitative and quantitative information about the effects of various heat treatments on materials of all kinds, including new chemical compounds, plastics, ceramics, alloys, construction materials, minerals, foods and medicines. Heating is performed under strictly controlled conditions and can reveal changes in structure and other important properties of the material being studied. Such studies are of great practical importance in the use of materials....

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  • Introduction: The aconite plants contain Aconitum alkaloids (AAs) and other minor components, such as chasmanine, kobusine and higenamine. AAs consist of aconitines, benzoylaconines and aconines as shown in Figure 1.1. The most toxic group is the aconitines, including aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, and jesaconitine; this group is one of the most poisonous compounds being contained in the plant kingdom. Even nowadays, aconite poisoning cases take place occasionally. These may be due to accidental, suicidal or homicidal ingestion of the plant itself or its extracts.

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  • Introduction: Diazine and triazine herbicides are being widely used in the world. These herbicides inhibit the electron-transport system in the higher plants and thus suppress the photosynthesis, resulting in the herbicidal action. These compounds are also important as pollutants for crops, soil and groundwater [1, 2]. The attention is usually directed toward chronic toxicities of the herbicides [3].

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  • Introduction: As one of azide salts, lead azide is well known, because it is used as a detonator for air bags of automobiles. Recently, sodium azide has been frequently used for suicides and homicidal attempts. In this chapter, therefore, analytical methods are described only for sodium azide. Sodium azidea is being well used as an antiseptic (preservative)b in biochemical researches and as a material for synthesis of organic compounds.

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  • Introduction: There are a number of compounds, such as morphine and codeine, which are classified into the opium alkaloids (opiates). They are being used as ethical drugs of narcotic analgesics and antitussives; 1 % powder of codeine or dihydrocodeine is commonly included in over-the-counter drugs of antitussives. Figure 3.1 shows metabolic pathways of morphine, heroin and codeine. Since morphine and codeine are finally excreted into urine in the conjugated forms with glucuronic acid [1–3], it is necessary to hydrolyze the conjugated forms of these compounds before GC/MS analysis.

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  • Introduction: Cocaine is an alkaloid being contained in the leaves of Erythroxylon coca Lam. or Erythroxylon novogranatense (Morris) Hieronymus of Erythroxylaceae plants. The compound is being used as a local anaesthetic. It also shows stimulating action on the central nervous system; when it is used continuously, psychic dependence on its use appears, resulting in its chronic toxicosis [1]. Cocaine is being abused worldwide; its abuse is most serious in the north and south American continents. Fortunately, in Japan, its abuse is not so many; but it cannot be overlooked.

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