One of the key characteristics of
agriculture is the inherent production
risks facing producers from adverse
weather, pests, and diseases. These risks
have been used to justify government
intervention in the form of disaster
assistance payments, emergency loans,
livestock feed assistance programs, crop
insurance, and other subsidized
assistance schemes. Yet, while
government intervention to provide
assistance has been widely supported in
the United States, the form of assistance
has been much debated.
Dewey holds that the capacity for aesthetic experiences of art arises out of basic
mechanisms, present even in animals, that are employed throughout everyday life.
We are in a continual process, Dewey notes, of falling out of sync with our
environments—whenever we are hungry, cold, tired, afraid, or in pain—and regaining
our sense of union and harmony. We continually detect signs of dissatisfaction or
discomfort within ourselves and attempt to alleviate that discomfort.
The standard is intended for the development of organic production and trade in the East African
region. The standards can be a platform for a common label for organic products in East Africa and
for developing consumer trust. The standard also formulates standpoints which can be used in
international negotiations on standards. Further, it can be a basis for equivalence agreements with
other countries and regions.
The East African organic products standard has been written in a way to make it easy for the reader
and user to access and understand.
On the other hand, in order to know the level of economic freedom of each country, the annual study by the
Heritage Foundation and Wall Street Journal, Index of Economic Freedom 2008, is used. In this edition the
study continues implementing the changes of the previous edition, but also added some more information
about the tax load for the people. Due to this change in the study, for its interanual comparison this report
uses the updated data of 2007 with the information included in the 2008 index in order to avoid differences
distorting the reality....
A second process was the expansion of soybeans and other crops in the cerrado (savannah) region of
Brazil by using varieties, soil amendments and conservation tillage developed through long-standing
public investment in research and development that allowed cultivation of acid soils that were previously
considered unsuitable for agriculture. This was a major technological success that dramatically increased
production and exports.
This paper analyzes junk bond defaults during 1980 to 1991 to determine which
factors affect the length of time spent in default. Bondholder holdouts are not a
significant problem, as firms with proportionately more bonds have shorter default
spells. In contrast, bank debt is associated with slower restructurings. Bargaining
problems arising from contingent liabilities, lawsuits, and size delay the
process, although multiple bond classes do not. Neither information problems nor
firm value appear to matter. HLTs do not resolve their defaults at a significantly
To the lay person, printing an electro mechanical device on the same machine, at the same time, may not
sound that revolutionary. However, when future 3D printers are able to manufacture very sophisticated
devices that contain fully formed electronic circuitry, batteries, sensors inside some sort of mechanical
“body,” we will witness the production of fully formed robots that will not require further assembly. The
ability of a 3D printer to print all of a robot’s vital parts in one fell swoop, directly from raw materials, would
not only save time and effort on assembly.
A simple model of earnings, operating cash flows, and accruals developed in this section generates an explanation for the negative serial correlation in operating cash flow changes. Increases (decreases) in sales generate contemporaneous outlays (inflows) for working capital increases (decreases) that are followed in the next period by cash inflows (outflows). The result is negative serial correlation in cash flow changes. Accruals exclude the contemporaneous one-time outflows for working capital from the current period's earnings and incorporate forecasts of permanent future cash inflows.
If the landlord does win the case, the clerk of the court
will issue a writ of possession to the sheriﬀ commanding the sheriﬀ to put the
landlord back in possession of the dwelling after 24 hours’ notice conspicuously
posted on the premises. Th e landlord or his agent may then remove the tenant’s
personal property from the premises. (Fla. Stat. §83.62).
At any rate, if you lose at any stage, your landlord will begin eviction. He may
either change the locks on your apartment and assert a lien on your possessions
for the money which you...
Metal in sediment is affected by mineralogical and chemical composition of suspended
material, anthropogenic influences by deposition, sorption, and enrichment in living
organism or aquatic plant (Jain et al., 2005). Naturally, suspended and bed sediment are an
important compartment to buffer metal concentration in an aquatic system especially by
adsorption or precipitation (Jain & Ali, 2000; Jain, 2001; Jain & Sharma, 2002; Jain et al.,
The consolidated income statement and consolidated statement of cash flows include the
revenues and expenses and cash flows of companies that are no longer in the Group up to the
date on which the related holding was sold or the company was liquidated, and those of the
new companies included in the Group from the date on which the holding was acquired or the
company was incorporated through year end.
Revenue and expenses associated with discontinued operations are presented in a separate line
on the consolidated income statement.
Over the last 20 years the development and application of genetics has revolutionized
forensic science. In 1984, the analysis of polymorphic regions of DNA produced what
was termed ‘a DNA fingerprint’ . The following year, at the request of the United
Kingdom Home Office, DNA profiling was successfully applied to a real case, when it
was used to resolve an immigration dispute . Following on from this, in 1986, DNA
evidence was used for the first time in a criminal case and identified Colin Pitchfork
as the killer of two school girls in Leicestershire, UK.
Second, information should be thought of as better if it reduces the uncertainty
surrounding some future cost or benefit. For instance, future liabilities are inherently
uncertain. Information that can narrow the variance on estimates of those uncertain liabilities
should be considered better information. Reduced variance is particularly valuable when
decision-makers are risk-averse, since a reduction in variance alone can lead to different
decisions when there is risk aversion.
Primarily, an investment property is one purchased strictly for the purpose of generating income.
It’s neither your current primary residence nor a vacation home used only by your family. An
investment property is usually purchased with the intention of either renting it out or renovating
it to resell at a profit. There are also some variations on that theme. For instance, when a family
relocates or decides to downsize, a primary residence can become an investment property if it
doesn’t need to be sold.
It appears that the 1998 totals are somewhat lower due to the benign credit cycle in the U.S. for
the past five years (1993-1997), when default rates on public high yield bonds averaged less than
2% each year (Exhibit 2, Altman & Kishore, 1998). The supply of public, domestic defaulted
bonds was about $10 billion as of mid-1998 and our best estimate of distressed public debt is
about $13 billion. At the same time, we have noticed an increase in distressed securities in 1998.
The resulting total of defaulted and distressed, public bonds and private debt as of end of August
If a company’sWeb site is used to collect, compile, or process customer data, that company has an added point of vulnerability. The increased
vulnerability in this situation arises from the potential of a hacker breaking into the Web site and stealing data such as names, address,
account information, or credit card numbers. In addition, if the Web site is integrated with back-end applications or connected to other
systems in the enterprise, there is a greater possibility that hackers and information thieves can access more sensitive information that
otherwise may be kept private.
However, their empirical observations can also be interpreted at hinting at a much more
fundamental problem with the causality between savings and investment proclaimed by
textbook theory. This thought is not new. The causation between saving and investment has
long been disputed and not yet been solved.
Based on the works of Keynes and Schumpeter,
some economists argue that the causation does not run from saving to investment, but rather
from investment to saving.
The negative coefficient of risk on leverage, both in market and book values, is in line
with standard corporate finance arguments, but also consistent with the regulatory view. In its
pure form, in which regulation constitutes the overriding departure from the Modigliani and
Miller irrelevance proposition, a regulator could force riskier banks to hold more book equity.
In that regard, omitting risk from the standard leverage regression (1) would result in spurious
significance of the remaining variables. The results in Table VII show this is not the case.
There is a powerful, positive influence that comes from the team being protected from
changing goals during the Sprint. First, the team gets to work knowing with absolute certainty
that its commitments will not change, which only reinforces the team’s focus on ensuring
completion. Second, it disciplines the Product Owner into really thinking through the items he
or she prioritizes on the Product Backlog. Knowing that the commitment is for the duration of
the Sprint makes the Product Owner much more diligent in thinking through what to ask for
at the beginning. ...
The contents of each cell in Table 12 are simply (and only) a reflection of the contents of the
equivalent cell in Table 10. Thus, for example, (re)training of former farm workers is a direct
response to the reduction in agricultural employment associated with the Agri-centric
narrative, and measures to strengthen entrepreneurship and IT aspects of human capital
could be a response to the depletion issues caused by the Urban-Rural narrative in PRR
Two summary points may be derived from Table 12.