This book is written primarily to engineering students in the fields of basic chemistry, environmental
chemistry, food production, chemical and biochemical engineering who in the beginning of their
university studies receive education in inorganic chemistry and applied chemistry in general.
The aim of this book is to explain and clarify important terms and concepts which the students are
supposed to be familiar with. The book can not replace existing educational textbooks but it gives a
great supplement to the education within chemistry.
Sustainable agriculture aims to supply suﬃcient food for the world population
while minimizing environmental impact. Part of sustainable agriculture is the
application of insecticides in order to protect crops from deleterious inverte-
brate pests, feeding on plants cultivated for human consumption. The discovery
of neonicotinoid insecticides can be considered as a milestone in insecticide
Neonicotinoids represent the fastest-growing class of insecticides
introduced to the market since the commercialization of pyrethroids....
One of the key characteristics of
agriculture is the inherent production
risks facing producers from adverse
weather, pests, and diseases. These risks
have been used to justify government
intervention in the form of disaster
assistance payments, emergency loans,
livestock feed assistance programs, crop
insurance, and other subsidized
assistance schemes. Yet, while
government intervention to provide
assistance has been widely supported in
the United States, the form of assistance
has been much debated.
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of chemical
compounds which do not exist in nature but which are manmade.
Commercial mixtures are clear, pale yellow liquids
manufactured by the replacement of hydrogen atoms on the
biphenyl molecule by chlorine. The reaction is controlled
according to the percentage replacement of hydrogen and
results in a product which contain chlorobiphenyls with one
or, more usually, several chlorine atoms attached to each
Natural products are a constant source of potentially active compounds for the treatment of various disorders. The Middle East and tropical regions are believed to have the richest supplies of natural products in the world. Plant derived secondary metabolites have been used by humans to treat acute infections, health disorders and chronic illness for tens of thousands of years. Only during the last 100 years have natural products been largely replaced by synthetic drugs.
The first things we need to understand are how an HPLC system works, its
best applications and advantages over other ways of separating compounds,
and other techniques that might compliment or even replace it. Is there a
faster, easier, cheaper, or more sensitive method of achieving your results? The
answer is yes, no, maybe. It really depends on what you are trying to achieve.
Continental shelves are the gently sloping areas of the ocean
floor, contiguous to the continent, that extend from the coastline
to the shelf-break. The shelf break, which is located around
150–200 meters depth, is the area of the continental margin
where there is an abrupt change between the shelf and the
steeper continental slope.
Primary production in the oceans, i.e. the production of organic
compounds from dissolved carbon dioxide and nutrients
through photosynthesis, is often associated with upwellings
(Botsford et al., 2006).
Penna et al. AMB Express 2011, 1:25 http://www.amb-express.com/content/1/1/25
A simple method to evaluate the number of bradyrhizobia on soybean seeds and its implication on inoculant quality control
Claudio Penna1, Rosana Massa1, Florencia Olivieri1, Gabriel Gutkind2 and Fabricio Cassán3*
Correction The authors regret that an error appears in Penna etal. (2011). The fourth sentence in the section Formulation and evaluation of the selective medium “This compound was initially solubilized in 98% ethanol, sterilized using 0.
There is a growing body of evidence which demonstrates
that following a diet that complies with the Dietary
Guidelines may reduce the risk of chronic disease.
Recently, it was reported that dietary patterns consistent
with recommended dietary guidance were associated
with a lower risk of mortality among individuals age 45
years and older in the United States.
A basic premise of the Dietary Guidelines is that nutrient
needs should be met primarily through consuming foods.
Foods provide an array of nutrients and other compounds
that may have beneficial effects on health. In certain cases,
fortified foods and dietary supplements may be useful
sources of one or more nutrients that otherwise might be
consumed in less than recommended amounts. However,
dietary supplements, while recommended in some cases,
cannot replace a healthful diet.
If you would like to challenge your students and engage them more actively in the scientific process, you
can use the second laboratory day for a student-designed investigation. Each group of students will
develop their own plan to identify the thief by testing Jerell's evidence and the types of food that were eaten
by the coworkers for the different types of organic compounds. For this investigation activity, you can use
the last page of these Teacher Preparation Notes to replace pages 5-6 of the Student Handout.
GlutathioneS-transferases (GSTs) catalyze the conjugation of glutathione
to hydrophobic compounds, contributing to the metabolism of toxic
chemicals. In this study, we show that two naturally occurring tau GSTs
(GSTUs) exhibit distinctive kinetic parameters towards 1-chloro-2,4-dini-trobenzene (CDNB), although they differ only in three amino acids
(Arg89, Glu117 and Ile172 in GSTU1 are replaced by Pro89, Lys117 and
Val172 in GSTU2).
The charged quaternary ammonium compounds – methyl, ethyl and benzyl
viologens – generate reactive oxygen species in photosynthetic cells. Three
independent methyl viologen-resistant spontaneous mutants of Synechocys-tis sp. PCC 6803 were identified, in which the conserved R115 residue of
the Slr1174 protein was replaced with G115, L115 and C115. The Slr1174
protein of the DUF990 family is related to the permease subunit of an
ABC-2-type transporter and its R115 mutation was found to be solely
responsible for the observed methyl viologen resistance. ...