traditional private/secret/single key cryptography uses one key
Key is shared by both sender and receiver
if the key is disclosed communications are compromised
also known as symmetric, both parties are equal
hence does not protect sender from receiver forging a message & claiming is sent by sender
The Institute for Mathematical Sciences at the National University of
Singapore was established on 1 July 2000 with funding from the Ministry
of Education and the University. Its mission is to provide an international
center of excellence in mathematical research and, in particular, to promote
within Singapore and the region active research in the mathematical
sciences and their applications. It seeks to serve as a focal point for scientists
of diverse backgrounds to interact and collaborate in research through
tutorials, workshops, seminars and informal discussions....
One of the key decisions in achieving successful freezing of tissue-engineered products is
the choice of cryoprotectant. Cryoprotectants minimize damage caused by ice crystal
formation and should induce an amorphous state, rather than ice crystals during the cooling
and warming phases. Although the use of cryoprotectants is mandatory, currently available
reagents are cytotoxic to some extent. Since tissue-engineered products are larger than
isolated cells, longer incubation times with cryoprotectant are necessary which may result in
a lower survival rate.
This guide provides a high-level overview of the exciting new features in the Windows 8 user interface so you can get up and running quickly with the new operating system. Windows 8 provides the power of a PC with the touch interface of a tablet so you don’t have to make any compromises. If you haven’t already installed Windows 8, you can find detailed installation instructions at: . This guide provides instructions for touch, mouse, and keyboard. Since Windows 8 is a touch-first interface, touch instructions are always listed first, and then mouse and keyboard instructions.
In order to answer each question the NCC-C information specialist developed a search
strategy to identify relevant published evidence for both clinical and cost effectiveness. Key
words and terms for the search were agreed in collaboration with the GDG. When
required, the health economist searched for supplementary papers to inform detailed health
economic work (see section on ‘Incorporating Health Economic Evidence’).
Late in the expansion phase (December 2003), the screening test was adjusted to add
VILI as part of the algorithm. This was done after experience at the district hospital level
and the completion of international studies involving more than 55,000 women in Asia
and Africa showed VILI to be easier to interpret and significantly more sensitive than
Lugol’s iodine stains normal cervix tissue brown, while precancerous lesions
(CIN) and cancerous lesions appear as a mustard yellow color.
ECTS was introduced in 1989, within the framework of Erasmus, now part of the
Socrates programme. ECTS is the only credit system which has been successfully
tested and used across Europe. ECTS was set up initially for credit transfer.
The system facilitated the recognition of periods of study abroad and thus
enhanced the quality and volume of student mobility in Europe. Recently ECTS has
been developing into an accumulation system to be implemented at institutional,
regional, national and European levels. This is one of the key objectives of the
Bologna Declaration of June 1999....
If there’s going to be any agreement, it’s necessary for one of us to make a concession. The only way to reach a compromise is to make a concession. The negotiation was finally successful when the other party backed down and compromised on a key issue.
From these examples, we notice a couple things: First, we usually say to make a concession and to reach a compromise. A compromise is a kind of agreement, and a concession is something we do to reach it. Note, however, that in the last example compromise is used as a verb. In this case, to...
In cryptography, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack in which
an attacker is able to read, insert and modify at will, messages between two
parties without either party knowing that the link between them has been
compromised. The attacker must be able to observe and intercept messages
going between the two victims. The MITM attack can work against publickey
cryptography and is also particularly applicable to the original Diffie-
Hellman key exchange protocol, when used without authentication....
This module will address password security. Although user names and passwords are a familiar
technology, most people are not aware of the inherent weaknesses in many of the different passwordbased
authentication schemes in use today. These weaknesses are important to understand since many
networks would be compromised if passwords on just a few key machines (such as firewalls, DNS
servers, or Windows domain controllers) were known to an attacker.
Hindawi Publishing Corporation EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing Volume 2008, Article ID 529879, 16 pages doi:10.1155/2008/529879
Research Article Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efﬁcient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling
Francis Minhthang Bui and Dimitrios Hatzinakos
The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G4 Correspondence should be addressed to Dimitrios Hatzinakos, firstname.lastname@example.org.
The ability to walk safely, easily, and in an aesthetically pleasing manner is
a skill learned early and highly prized. Although it is typically taken for
granted, gait is key to mobility and functional independence and at the
core of our ability to carry out many activities of daily living. In older adults
and patients with neurological deficits, ease and safety in walking may
become compromised, and gait is often viewed as abnormal, i.e., as a disorder.
While not an inevitable part of aging, gait disorders are common
among older adults and in patients with neurological disease.
There is increasing recognition that new forms of partnership and intersectoral
work are required to address the social and economic determinants of health.
Investments in both education and health are compromised unless a school is a
healthy place in which to live, learn and work. School communities respond to a
dynamic set of factors affecting student achievement and learning outcomes. The
health of students, teachers and families is a key factor influencing learning.
The Web contains vast amounts of linguistic data. One key issue for linguists and language technologists is how to access it. Commercial search engines give highly compromised access. An alternative is to crawl the Web ourselves, which also allows us to remove duplicates and nearduplicates, navigational material, and a range of other kinds of non-linguistic matter. We can also tokenize, lemmatise and part-of-speech tag the corpus, and load the data into a corpus query tool which supports sophisticated linguistic queries.