Computer applications

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  • The sole purpose of these lecture notes is to provide an aid to the high school students attending the HSSP course “C-01B Reverse Engineering in Computer Applications” taught during Spring 2001 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The information presented hereby is on an “as-is” basis and the author cannot be possibly held liable for damages caused or initiated using methods or techniques described (or mentioned) in these notes.

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  • This glossary defines terms in the field of computer applications. Topics covered include automated language processing, automatic indexing, business data processing, character recognition, computer-aided design and manufacturing, computer-assisted instruction, control systems, critical path method, library automation, medical applications, micrographics, office automation, operations research, personal computing, scientific and engineering applications, telecommunication applications, and word processing....

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  • In recent years many successful machine learning applications have been developed, ranging from data mining programs that learn to detect fraudulent credit card transactions, to information filtering systems that learn user’s reading preferences, to autonomous vehicles that learn to drive on public highways. At the same time, machine learning techniques such as rule induction, neural networks, genetic learning, case-based reasoning, and analytic learning have been widely applied to real-world problems.

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  • Even since computers were invented many decades ago, many researchers have been trying to understand how human beings learn and many interesting paradigms and approaches towards emulating human learning abilities have been proposed. The ability of learning is one of the central features of human intelligence, which makes it an important ingredient in both traditional Artificial Intelligence (AI) and emerging Cognitive Science.

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  • Face plays an important role in human communication. Facial expressions and gestures incorporate nonverbal information which contributes to human communication. By recognizing the facial expressions from facial images, a number of applications in the field of human computer interaction can be facilitated. Last two decades, the developments, as well as the prospects in the field of multimedia signal processing have attracted the attention of many computer vision researchers to concentrate in the problems of the facial expression recognition....

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  • This book presents several recent advances on Evolutionary Computation, specially evolution-based optimization methods and hybrid algorithms for several applications, from optimization and learning to pattern recognition and bioinformatics. Concerning evolutionbased optimization methods, this book presents diverse versions of genetic algorithms, genetic programming, and performance studies and analyses, as well as several particle swarm optimizers and hybrid approaches using neural networks and artificial immunological systems for multi-objective optimization....

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  • The book substantially offers the latest progresses about the important topics of the "Mechanical Engineering" to readers. It includes twenty-eight excellent studies prepared using state-of-art methodologies by professional researchers from different countries. The sections in the book comprise of the following titles: power transmission system, manufacturing processes and system analysis, thermo-fluid systems, simulations and computer applications, and new approaches in mechanical engineering education and organization systems....

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  • This book has a unique title” Advances in Computer Science and IT”, although it is not entirely new there is a trend of similar titles in many international conferences. However, for a book this title certainly has innovation and many articles presented in the text shows there uniqueness likewise the title.

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  • Evolutionary computation has been widely used in computer science for decades. Even though it started as far back as the 1960s with simulated evolution, the subject is still evolving. During this time, new metaheuristic optimization approaches, like evolutionary algorithms, genetic algorithms, swarm intelligence, etc., were being developed and new fields of usage in artificial intelligence, machine learning, combinatorial and numerical optimization, etc., were being explored.

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  • A multi-agent system (MAS) is a system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents. Multi-agent systems can be used to solve problems which are difficult or impossible for an individual agent or monolithic system to solve. Agent systems are open and extensible systems that allow for the deployment of autonomous and proactive software components. Multi-agent systems have been brought up and used in several application domains.

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  • Nowadays, embedded systems - computer systems that are embedded in various kinds of devices and play an important role of specific control functions, have permeated various scenes of industry. Therefore, we can hardly discuss our life or society from now on without referring to embedded systems. For wide-ranging embedded systems to continue their growth, a number of high-quality fundamental and applied researches are indispensable.

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  • It has been many decades, since Computer Science has been able to achieve tremendous recognition and has been applied in various fields, mainly computer programming and software engineering. Many efforts have been taken to improve knowledge of researchers, educationists and others in the field of computer science and engineering. This book provides a further insight in this direction. It provides innovative ideas in the field of computer science and engineering with a view to face new challenges of the current and future centuries....

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  • Although many other models of concurrent and distributed systems have been developed since the introduction in 1964 Petri nets are still an essential model for concurrent systems with respect to both the theory and the applications. The main attraction of Petri nets is the way in which the basic aspects of concurrent systems are captured both conceptually and mathematically. The intuitively appealing graphical notation makes Petri nets the model of choice in many applications.

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  • Computer vision uses digital computer techniques to extract, characterize, and interpret information in visual images of a three-dimensional world. The goal of computer vision is primarily to enable engineering systems to model and manipulate the environment by using visual sensing. The field of computer vision can be characterized as immature and diverse. Even though earlier work exists, it was not until the late 1970s that a more focused study of the field started when computers could manage the processing of large data sets such as images....

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  • Due to the development of mobile and Web 2.0 technology, knowledge transfer, storage and retrieval have become much more rapid. In recent years, there have been more and more new and interesting findings in the research field of knowledge management. This book aims to introduce readers to the recent research topics, it is titled "New Research on Knowledge Management Applications and Lesson Learned" and includes 14 chapters.

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  • Database management has evolved from a specialized computer application to a central component of a modern computing environment, and, as a result, knowl- edge about database systems has become an essential part of an education in com- puter science. In this text, we present the fundamental concepts of database manage- ment. These concepts include aspects of database design, database languages, and database-system implementation.

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  • Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are global optimization techniques used in many real-life applications. They are one of several techniques in the family of Evolutionary Algorithms – algorithms that search for solutions to optimization problems by “evolving” better and better solutions. A Genetic Algorithm starts with a population of possible solutions for the desired application. The best ones are selected to become parents and then, using genetic operators like crossover and mutation, offspring are generated....

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  • After decades of research activity, speech recognition technologies have advanced in both the theoretical and practical domains. The technology of speech recognition has evolved from the first attempts at speech analysis with digital computers by James Flanagan’s group at Bell Laboratories in the early 1960s, through to the introduction of dynamic time-warping

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  • Parallel and distributed computing has offered the opportunity of solving a wide range of computationally intensive problems by increasing the computing power of sequential computers. Although important improvements have been achieved in this field in the last 30 years, there are still many unresolved issues. These issues arise from several broad areas, such as the design of parallel systems and scalable interconnects, the efficient distribution of processing tasks, or the development of parallel algorithms....

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  • Over the past decade, there has been a strong revival of interest in agent-based technology, with a recognition that it impacts many areas such as artificial intelligence, distributed computing, and software engineering. Agent-based technology can be used to solve a variety of business and technology problems. Examples of such applications include electronic commerce, grid computing, social networks, and adaptive virtual environment.

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