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Lichens have been used to study air pollution chemistry in national parks and forests since the 1980s
(Figures 1 and 2). There have also been a few lichen studies on national wildlife refuges. Most of the
studies have been floristic studies, reports of baseline concentrations of elements in lichen tissues and,
occasionally, trends in these concentrations. Figure 1 shows park and refuge locations with tissue
chemistry data. USGS Biological Resources Division maintains a web site listing lichens known from each
of the national parks shown on the map (http://www.ies.wisc.
Computing the usual productivity measures requires data on the value of
transactions and either prices or quantities. In the final research study of this
volume, Erwin Diewert notes that Canada lacks direct price and quantity measures
for many important services industries. Other nations also have this problem.
As a result, the usual productivity indexes cannot be evaluated properly for
those services industries, nor can we get a complete picture of productivity performance
for the economy as a whole.
The recent wide diffusion of (i) easy-to-use software tools for the implementation of
Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs); and (ii) communication-oriented instrumentation,
often provided with Ethernet interface, in addition to the more traditional GPIB and
RS-232 ones, can be particularly exploited in the field of measurement teaching. It is
well known, in fact, that for a better understanding of the teaching issues in such a
field, the students have to practice with real instrumentation. The computer-based
simulations are often inadequate to assure a good experience in that direction.
A variety of evidence supports the role of design in enhancing firm
performance. New research undertaken for this study also shows that firms with
higher design intensity have a greater probability of carrying out product
innovation and that design expenditure has a positive association with firm
productivity growth. Nonetheless, the multifaceted nature of design makes it
difficult to isolate from more traditional factors affecting performance, such as
market conditions or investment. Research is also hampered by the lack of
commonly agreed statistical measures.
Measured Progress is a not-for-profit organization
that designs and administers customized, largescale
student assessments. The Dover, New
Hampshire-based company develops assessments
that help states and school districts meet federal
mandates to evaluate the effectiveness of
classroom instruction through assessment, rather
than merely ranking students. Of course, the
primary goal for both Measured Progress and
its clients is improving teaching and learning
The Biodiplomacy Initiative at UNU-IAS has been carrying
out analysis of the opportunities, challenges and options
for international governance of cloning. This study builds
upon an earlier working paper on governance options for
cloning submitted to parties at one of the UN meetings
discussing the Declaration and critically examines the
international process for development of measures to
regulate cloning, from the perspectives of bioethics and
national and international law. It is divided into four
As more users are connected to the Internet and conduct
their daily activities electronically, computer users have become
the target of an underground economy that infects hosts
with malware or adware for financial gain. Unfortunately,
even a single visit to an infected web site enables the attacker
to detect vulnerabilities in the user’s applications and force
the download a multitude of malware binaries.
In this paper we propose a domainindependent text segmentation method, which consists of three components. Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) is employed to compute words semantic distribution, and we measure semantic similarity by the Fisher kernel. Finally global best segmentation is achieved by dynamic programming. Experiments on Chinese data sets with the technique show it can be effective. Introducing latent semantic information, our algorithm is robust on irregular-sized segments.
The API computes semantic relatedness by: 1. taking a pair of words as input; 2. retrieving the Wikipedia articles they refer to (via a disambiguation strategy based on the link structure of the articles); 3. computing paths in the Wikipedia categorization graph between the categories the articles are assigned to; 4. returning as output the set of paths found, scored according to some measure deﬁnition. The implementation includes path-length (Rada et al., 1989; Wu & Palmer, 1994; Leacock & Chodorow, 1998), information-content (Resnik, 1995; Seco et al.
Better representations of plot structure could greatly improve computational methods for summarizing and generating stories. Current representations lack abstraction, focusing too closely on events. We present a kernel for comparing novelistic plots at a higher level, in terms of the cast of characters they depict and the social relationships between them. Our kernel compares the characters of different novels to one another by measuring their frequency of occurrence over time and the descriptive and emotional language associated with them.
Within specific geographic areas, GHI Kenya will identify existing activities and programmatic
gaps and, in the intensified areas, new potential synergies between USG agencies/programs and the
GOK towards maternal, neonatal and child mortality and NTD morbidity and mortality reduction.
Illustrative activities described in Appendix 1 are part of standard care and management practices.
Research objectives: Building a method of granulating partitions of domain of interpretation in DLs. This method is base on bisimulation and using suitable selectors as well as information gain measure; proposing bisimulation-based concept learning algorithms for knowledge bases in DLs using Setting.
Stereopsis is a vision process whose geometrical foundation has been known for a long
time, ever since the experiments by Wheatstone, in the 19th century. Nevertheless, its
inner workings in biological organisms, as well as its emulation by computer systems,
have proven elusive, and stereo vision remains a very active and challenging area of
research nowadays. In this volume we have attempted to present a limited but relevant
sample of the work being carried out in stereo vision by researchers from around
Antilock braking systems (also known as antiskid braking systems) for vehicles are discussed here because they represent perhaps the most involved commonly used systems for automatic brake control. The data collection, analysis, and system design involved may suggest initial procedures to be followed for clutch and brake automation in other applications. Design of an antilock system (ABS) for highway vehicles requires decisions to what is to be measured, how it is to be measured, and how to use the data to prevent skidding.
The method consists of filling an airtight bottle with a sample. The bottle is a specified size and filled to
overflowing. The sample is incubated at constant temperature for five days. Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) is measured
by probe before and after incubation. BOD is computed based on the difference between initial and final D.O.
Computerised Temperature Measuring Systems
Trends in Process Instrumentation
In contemporary industrial processes, the measurement of temperature is one of the most frequently conducted operation among all of the other various physical variables that need to be measured. Current process instrumentation and measurement techniques show an inexorable trend in the use of a wide array of sophisticated procedures, including the capture and advanced algorithmic processing of multi-channel data.
In this paper we present the implementation of a digital lock-in amplifier (LIA) completely based on Labview with a general-purpose data acquisition board (or a high quality sound card) and a high-gain low-noise amplifier. The signal analysis is processed by the software. We describe some characteristics of the LIA including output voltage vs. frequency and output phase vs. noise. The LIA can be used to measure the small signals, even in presence of broadband noise which is several times greater than the signal itself. Since the signal processing takes place on the computer, ...
We describe a novel method that extracts paraphrases from a bitext, for both the source and target languages. In order to reduce the search space, we decompose the phrase-table into sub-phrase-tables and construct separate clusters for source and target phrases. We convert the clusters into graphs, add smoothing/syntacticinformation-carrier vertices, and compute the similarity between phrases with a random walk-based measure, the commute time.