In this edited volume, global experts in ecology and evolutionary biology explore how theories in ecology elucidate the processes of invasion, while also examining how specific invasions inform ecological theory. This reciprocal benefit is highlighted in a number of scales of organization: population, community and biogeographic. The text describes example invaders in all major groups of organisms and from a number of regions around the globe.
Microbes produce an extraordinary array of microbial defense systems. These
include broad-spectrum classical antibiotics, metabolic byproducts, such as
the lactic acids produced by lactobacilli, lytic agents such as lysozymes,
numerous types of protein exotoxins, and bacteriocins, which are loosely
defined as biologically active protein moieties with a bacteriocidal mode of
It is intended that this book be suitable for a variety of engineers and ecologists, who
may wish to gain an introduction to the rapidly growing field of ecological and
environmental modelling. An understanding of the fundamentals of environmental
problems and ecology, as presented for instance in the textbook Principles of
Environmental Science and Technology is assumed. Furthermore, it is assumed that
the reader has either a fundamental knowledge of differential equations and matrix
calculations or has read the Appendix, which gives a brief introduction to these
Human activities are affecting the global environment in myriad
ways, with numerous direct and indirect effects on ecosystems.
The climate and atmospheric composition of Earth are changing
rapidly. Humans have directly modified half of the ice-free terrestrial
surface and use 40% of terrestrial production. Our actions are
causing the sixth major extinction event in the history of life on
Earth and are radically modifying the interactions among forests,
fields, streams, and oceans.
The natural world is a place I escape to: a place that goes about its business
regardless of everyday individual human concerns. It is a place of beauty,
change, diversity, and endless fa scination. Like many who share these sentiments,
I was never content to just be in nature: I had to watch, name, learn,
and understand. This book is about understanding how and why the natural
world works, thereby to appreciate it more for what it really is. For me, that is
one of the things that make life ‘more than just living’....
When we eventually look back at the intellectual shibboleths of the high capitalist
period—say the last three centuries—few ingrained assumptions will look so
wrongheaded or so globally destructive as the common-sense separation of society and
nature. Historically and geographically, most societies have avoided such a stark
presumption as hubristic folly, but from physicists to sociologists, physicians to poets, the
brains of the ascendant capitalist “west” not only embraced but made a virtue of society’s
separation from nature (and vice versa).
The concept of forest sustainability dates from centuries ago, although the
understanding of sustainable forest management (SFM) as an instrument that
harmonizes ecological and socio-economic concerns is relatively new. The change in
perspective occurred at the beginning of the 1990s in response to an increased
awareness of the deterioration of the environment, in particular of the alarming loss of
forest resources. The main and most striking cause of this deterioration is the
deforestation occurring in some areas of the world.
Although farmers do not receive any support from society for the contribution of the dehesa
to welfare of society and the environment, they still conserve, prune and reforest oaks to
maintain fruit production to feed and fatten Iberian pigs during the montanera or pannage.
The ability of the Iberian pig breed to feed on acorns is a key feature in maintaining the
Benthic algae have been intensively studied, especially over the past
two decades. This intensity has been stimulated by the widespread recognition
that benthic algae are ideal indicators of the health of many, if not
most, aquatic ecosystems. With this book we hope to synthesize this vital
area of research and share its essence with our colleagues and students. We
started with an outline of the myriad abiotic and biotic determinants of
benthic algal ecology.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí hóa hoc quốc tế đề tài : Laudation to Prof. Dr. Hans-Toni Ratte–towards conceptual, theory-based ecological science and its transfer to the applied field of ecotoxicology
The impetus to write a book on the riverine ecosystem synthesis emerged at the 2005 annual
meeting of the North American Benthological Society in New Orleans, and barely 2 months
later, we signed a contract with Academic Press. This book was to be an expansion of a
manuscript that was In Press at that time in River Research and Applications (Thorp et al.,
Available data suggest that, in addition to the obvious catches of fish for human needs, the by-
catches in the world’s fisheries have a significant ecological impact and cause mortality amongst fin-fish
(particularly the juveniles of commercial fish species), as well as amongst benthic invertebrates, marine
mammals, turtles and birds.
We wrote this book to share with other ecologists what we have learned about the structure and
use of theory and its relationship to the myriad activities that constitute modern science. Our
own quest was motivated by the sometimes unclear way in which the term “theory” is used in
both scientifi c publications and informal discussions. We needed to fi nd out what theory was
and how it was built. We also wanted to evaluate the varied and often contradictory claims made
about what constitutes proper scientifi c practice.
This is probably the first study that has used resilience, the adaptive cycle and
panarchy as a major part of the conceptual foundation for the work. Resilience
(as used here) has been explored in the literature for about 30 years, the
adaptive cycle originated about 18 years ago and both have been integrated
within the panarchy concept for only a few years.
This book discusses interdisciplinary views of understanding and conceptualizing
the changing global economy, by emphasizing a specific spatial perspective
that mirrors unequal economic development, and selective specialization
and growth processes.
Due to the growing importance of forest goods and services an increasing amount of information is
being collected on the ecological and also on the socio-economic value of goods and services
provided by forests. However, much of this information is collected and presented at incompatible
scales or it has been classified differently. In order to make comparative ecological or economic
analysis possible, standardized frameworks for assessing the importance of forest goods and services
The ARIES methodology is based on
explicit conceptualizations (ontologies:
Villa, Athanasiadis et al. 2009) that lay
out first of all a novel vision of ES,
based on the breakdown into individual
benefits, each of which is modeled
independently, then linked to the others.
Domain ontologies in ARIES result
from a large-scale expert consensus.
Artificial intelligence techniques
(machine reasoning, pattern recognition)
examine source data and extract from
the ontologies models that best represent
the situation at hand.