The landscape we see is not a picture frozen in time only to be cherished and protected. Rather it is a continuing story of the earth itself where man, in concert with the hills and other living things, shapes and reshapes the ever changing picture which we now see. And in it we may read the hopes and priorities, the ambitions and errors, the craft and creativity of those who went before us. We must never forget that tomorrow it will reflect with brutal honesty the vision, values, and endeavours of our own time, to those who follow us....
It was during the Depression that hospitals band-
ed together to offer prepaid coverage to citizens.
Prepaid hospital coverage was a way for hospitals to
avoid the financial failure that befell the banking
industry. The approach worked so well that doctors
followed suit a few years later and Blue Cross Blue
Shield organizations were born. Little did anyone
know that the seeds for runaway costs eighty years
later had been planted.
Prepaid, employer-provided insurance quickly
dominated the health care landscape.
From an educational perspective, this kind of phenomenon represents
a tantalizing opportunity for deep, transformative learning. To this point,
however, relatively little attention has been given to the role of automatic,
non-conscious processes in situations where significant learning is occur-
ring. Typically, the non-conscious perceptions of interest are reflexive
biases and prejudices.
Extraction activities disturb the land surface through
clearing of vegetation, removal of topsoil, excavation
of ore and overburden and the construction of over-
burden dumps or solar evaporation ponds.
Removal and stockpiling of topsoil for subsequent
rehabilitation is carried out at many mining opera-
tions. In a number of cases, topsoil is removed and
placed directly on landscaped reclaimed areas. This
avoids the cost of re-transporting topsoil from stock-
piles and the possible reduction of biodiversity.
The impetus to write a book on the riverine ecosystem synthesis emerged at the 2005 annual
meeting of the North American Benthological Society in New Orleans, and barely 2 months
later, we signed a contract with Academic Press. This book was to be an expansion of a
manuscript that was In Press at that time in River Research and Applications (Thorp et al.,
This book explores four overlapping themes in biogeography among multiple plant
and animal groups, across subcontinental to global spatial scales, and over
evolutionary time. These four themes include: 1) biogeographic theory and tests of
concepts and processes; 2) the regional biogeography of individual taxa; 3) historical
and contemporary biogeography of complex landscapes; and 4) the evolutionary
biogeography of macrotaxa.
In the first chapter of the conceptual biogeography section, Khalid Al Mutairi et al.
In studies from the first of these fields, guided by
objectives of an applied nature, it is the users that deter-
mine the aesthetic value and/or quality of the landscape;
however, this is conceptualized as an external and inva-
riant source of stimulation to which individuals respond
in a uniform way.