Xem 1-20 trên 33 kết quả Conceptual meaning
  • This paper describes an operational system which can acquire the core meanings of words without any prior knowledge of either the category or meaning of any words it encounters. The system is given as input, a description of sequences of scenes along with sentences which describe the [EVENTS] taking place as those scenes unfold, and produces as output, a lexicon consisting of the category and meaning of each word in the input, that allows the sentences to describe the [EVENTS]. It is argued, that each of the three main components of the system, the parser, the linker and the...

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  • Widely accepted resources for semantic parsing, such as PropBank and FrameNet, are not perfect as a semantic role labeling framework. Their semantic roles are not strictly defined; therefore, their meanings and semantic characteristics are unclear. In addition, it is presupposed that a single semantic role is assigned to each syntactic argument. This is not necessarily true when we consider internal structures of verb semantics. We propose a new framework for semantic role annotation which solves these problems by extending the theory of lexical conceptual structure (LCS). ...

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  • Since we can ‘spin’ words and concepts to suit our affective needs, context is a major determinant of the perceived affect of a word or concept. We view this re-profiling as a selective emphasis or de-emphasis of the qualities that underpin our shared stereotype of a concept or a word meaning, and construct our model of the affective lexicon accordingly .

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  • This paper proposes a principled approach for analysis of semantic relations between constituents in compound nouns based on lexical semantic structure. One of the difficulties of compound noun analysis is that the mechanisms governing the decision system of semantic relations and the representation method of semantic relations associated with lexical and contextual meaning are not obvious.

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  • This paper idescribes the current state of the S~/~gYN project , whose goal is be develop a module for generation of German from a semantic representation. The first application of this module is within the framework of a Japanese/German machine translation project. The generation process is organized into three stages that use distinct knowledge sources. ~ne first stage is conceptually oriented and language independent, and exploits case and concept schemata.

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  • Here we address the problem of mapping phrase meanings into their conceptual representations. Figurative phrases are pervasive in human communication, yet they are difficult to explain theoretically. In fact, the ability to handle idiosyncratic behavior of phrases should be a criterion for any theory of lexical representation. Due to the huge number of such phrases in the English language, phrase representation must be amenable to parsing, generation, and also to learning.

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  • Bài giảng Quản lý tài chính trong xây dựng: Ước lượng tổng mức đầu tư theo dữ liệu của RM Means Cost Data theo quy định vốn đầu tư do TS. Lưu Trường Văn biên soạn trình bày về các khái niệm cơ bản về ước lượng, conceptual estimate rough order of magnitude, tổng mức đầu tư của dự án đầu tư xây dựng công trình từ nguồn vốn ngân sách. Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo nội dung chi tiết tài liệu.

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  • Performance management is a strategic and integrated process that delivers sustained success to organizations by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of individual contributors and teams. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study,or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means,with the prior permission in writing of the publishers.........

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  • The term distance learning has different meanings to different people and populations. By presenting international perspectives of distance learning, this book embraces all those meanings and populations without giving preference to any. In todayʹs global world where distance providers can address local learning needs, it is important for distance learning practitioners and researchers as well as higher education administrators and faculty to have a broad view of how distance learning is conceptualized, planned and delivered....

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  • This book discusses an emerging approach to architecture in which building performance is a guiding design principle. This architecture places broadly defined performance above, or on a par with, form-making; it utilizes digital technologies of quantitative and qualitative performance-based simulation to offer a comprehensive new approach to the design of the built environment.

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  • In the past few decades, worldwide social, political, legal, ethical, cultural and technological forces have led to a globalization movement. Indeed, many efforts have been made in globalizing various economic areas, including global environmental protection, world trade agreements, global sustainable development, etc. However, there are many debates on globalization and its effects on the environment and/or sustainable economic growth around the globe.

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  • Possibilities can be explained from several semantic aspects. One way to explain possibility is ease of achievement. Another way is plausibility; that is, the propensity of an event to occur, which relates to the concept of “potential surprise”. A third way to explain possibility is logical consistency with available information. Finally, possibility can be explained as preference, referring to the willingness of an agent to make a decision. Possibility is dually related to necessity in the sense that “not A” being not possible means that A is necessary.

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  • Calls for standards in education have been echoing across the nation for several years, especially since political leaders of both parties decided to adopt bipartisan national goals for education. Standards without appropriate means of measuring progress, however, amount to little more than empty rhetoric. To stay the course and achieve the national goals for education, we must measure the things that really count.

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  • Current average fuel economy levels vary consid- erably by country. Across the OECD the average figure in 2005 was around 8 litres per 100 km for new cars (including SUVs and minivans and in- cluding both gasoline and diesel vehicles). With a 50% fuel economy improvement, the average new car performance in OECD markets would improve to around 4 litres per 100 km (about 90 g/km of CO2).

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  • A conclusion which can be drawn out of above figures is that these liquidation numbers closely follow the ups and downs of economic growth figures in real terms. This is not at all surprising as businesses depend on turnover to create cash flows. Liquidations are a lagging indicator of economic growth; they follow the growth pattern rather than leading it. What above table also makes clear is how bank risks are closely correlated with economic growth patterns. When companies go bankrupt, it usually also means substantial write-offs on loans to these companies: an economic loss.

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  • Web Service Architectures and Service-Oriented Architecture Explain the relationship between the conceptual service-oriented architecture and Web Services architectures. Use the demonstration of the final solution as a means to show each of the Web Service architectural elements as concrete implementations.

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  • How the Global Positioning System works is, conceptually, really very simple. All GPS is, is a distance (ranging) system. This means that the only thing that the user is trying to do is determine how far they are from any given satellite. There is no inherent vector information, which implies azimuth (compass direction) and elevation, in the GPS signal. All that the GPS satellite does is shoot out a signal in all directions, although there is a preferential orientation towardthe Earth. In essence, the GPS operates on the principle of trilateration.

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  • The goal of this edition is the same as that of the first: to present the conceptual framework used for the pricing and hedging of fixed income securities in an intuitive and mathematically simple manner. But, in striving to fulfil this goal, this edition substantially revises and expands the first. Many concepts developed by expert practitioners and academics remain mysterious or only partially understood by many. Examples include convexity, risk-neutral pricing, risk premium, mean reversion, the futuresforward effect, and the financing tail....

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  • This book is based on a seven - year study very generously supported by the John Templeton Foundation. We are especially grateful to Arthur Schwartz, formerly executive vice president at the foundation, who approached us eight years ago with the idea of undertaking this national study of students ’ search for meaning and purpose. Thank you, Arthur, for your enormous support and early guidance in conceptualizing the study and for challenging us to think critically, creatively, and expansively.

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  • As discussed in Chapter 10, the pel recursive technique is one of the three major approaches to two-dimensional displacement estimation in image planes for the signal processing community. Conceptually speaking, it is one type of region-matching technique. In contrast to block matching (which was discussed in the previous chapter), it recursively estimates displacement vectors for each pixel in an image frame. The displacement vector of a pixel is estimated by recursively minimizing a nonlinear function of the dissimilarity between two certain regions located in two consecutive frames.

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