C++ Concurrency in Action is a reference and guide to the new C++ 11 Standard for experienced C++ programmers as well as those who have never written multithreaded code. This book will show you how to write robust multithreaded applications in C++ while avoiding many common pitfalls.
About the Technology
Multiple processors with multiple cores are the norm these days. The C++11 version of the C++ language offers beefed-up support for multithreaded applications, and requires that you master the principles, techniques, and new language features of concurrency to stay ahead of the curve....
Concurrent programming has become a required discipline for all programmers. Multi-core processors and the increasing demand for maximum performance and scalability in mission-critical applications have renewed interest in functional languages like Erlang that are designed to handle concurrent programming. Erlang, and the OTP platform, make it possible to deliver more robust applications that satisfy rigorous uptime and performance requirements.
Speed. Aside from caffeine, nothing quickens the pulse of a programmer as
much as the blazingly fast execution of a piece of code. How can we fulfill
the need for computational speed? Moore’s law takes us some of the way,
but multicore is the real future. To take full advantage of multicore, we need
to program with concurrency in mind.
In a concurrent program, two or more actions take place simultaneously.
A concurrent program may download multiple files while performing computations
and updating the database. We often write concurrent programs
using threads in Java.
The half-life of UPA is 32.4 hours, which means that most of the drug is eliminated by 1 week
and the interaction with hormonal contraception is likely to be clinically insignificant by this
time. If a hormonal method is quick started the CEU advises use of additional contraceptive
precautions for 1 week after taking UPA plus the time required for contraceptive efficacy to
be established (see Summary on page iv).
Prescribed medication taken in conjunction with alcohol can cause adverse side effects
and generally, older people are advised not to drink when they are taking other drugs.
Problems caused by using alcohol and other drugs concurrently may include a diminished
effect of the drugs in an individual who drinks regularly and the increased sensitivity to
drugs conferred by malnutrition and severe liver damage, for example cirrhosis. Alcohol in
moderate amounts can depress the rate of drug metabolism so that the action of some
drugs is exaggerated, such as benzodiazipines.
Previous studies have shown an anticancer effect of vitamin D, but the
mechanisms underlying this action have not been fully explored. Here we
show that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3, the active form of vitamin D)
significantly promoted apoptosis in the undifferentiated gastric cancer cell
line HGC-27, and this was accompanied by a concurrent increase in phos-phatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression
on VD3 treatment.
VERIFICATION USING TIMED AUTOMATA
Finite automata and temporal logics have been used extensively to formally verify qualitative properties of concurrent systems. The properties include deadlock- or livelock-freedom, the eventual occurrence of an event, and the satisfaction of a predicate. The need to reason with absolute time is unnecessary in these applications, whose correctness depends only on the relative ordering of the associated events and actions.
Although the former NOP director attributed the agency’s inability to effectively act on investigations and issue enforcement actions to a lack of resources, we determined that several other factors contributed to this deficiency. We noted, for instance, that NOP lacked procedures for receiving, reviewing, and maintaining reports of investigations from AMS Compliance. In addition, NOP did not establish a specific written process, including timeframes, for determining which enforcement actions are appropriate and for initiating and completing such actions in a timely manner.
Petri Nets are graphical and mathematical tool used in many different science domains. Their characteristic features are the intuitive graphical modeling language and advanced formal analysis method. The concurrence of performed actions is the natural phenomenon due to which Petri Nets are perceived as mathematical tool for modeling concurrent systems. The nets whose model was extended with the time model can be applied in modeling real-time systems.
Manual Locking Under some circumstances, a user might want to override default
locking. Oracle allows manual override of automatic locking features at both the row
level (by first querying for the rows that will be updated in a subsequent statement)
and the table level.
Database administrators occasionally need isolation from concurrent non-database
administrator actions, that is, isolation from concurrent non-database administrator
transactions, queries, or PL/SQL statements.