Drug education programmes that are planned and implemented in consultation
with parents are not only more successful, but also empower parents. Parents
often have difficulty discussing drug issues with their children, yet parents are
often cited by young people as the most trusted and the preferred source of
information about health issues.
Schools can assist parents by providing them with information about health and
drug issues as part of their whole school approach.
Health reform also significantly expands the need for specialty treatment agencies to develop
ongoing and close relationships with primary care providers. Screening, brief intervention, and
referral to treatment (SBIRT) has been an important component in discussions about health
reform. SBIRT places early screening and brief intervention in the primary care setting where
people generally come into contact with the healthcare setting most frequently.
This book aims to strengthen the knowledge base dealing with Air Pollution. The book consists of 21 chapters dealing with Air Pollution and its effects in the fields of Health, Environment, Economy and Agricultural Sources. It is divided into four sections. The first one deals with effect of air pollution on health and human body organs. The second section includes the Impact of air pollution on plants and agricultural sources and methods of resistance. The third section includes environmental changes, geographic and climatic conditions due to air pollution....
A Public Health Perspective of Women’s Mental Health examines major issues in
the organization, financing, and provision of women’s mental health services. It also
presents an overview of the epidemiology of mental disorders across the lifespan
of women, an in-depth discussion of selected mental and substance use disorders
that particularly affect women, and includes an examination of emerging issues in
women’s mental health.
The World Health Organization and the United Nations Population Fund in collaboration with the
Key Centre for Women’s Health in Society, in the School of Population Health at the University of
Melbourne, Australia are pleased to present this joint publication of available evidence on the intricate
relationship between women’s mental and reproductive health. The review comprises the most recent
information on the ways in which mental health concerns intersect with women’s reproductive health.
Psychiatrists and diverse other mental health and broader healthcare professionals
are faced with many challenges in effectively evaluating and treating
persons with psychiatric illnesses and substance use disorders. Resources are
often stretched thin, especially for those with the most serious and disabling
conditions, and many people who would benefit from treatment are untreated,
undertreated, or treated only after extended delays for complex reasons.
Clinicians clearly have difficulties and barriers in their efforts to provide
comprehensive, efficacious, and timely treatment.
Women's risk for many diseases increases at menopause, which occurs at a median age of 51.4 years. In the industrialized world, women spend one-third of their lives in the postmenopausal period.
Estrogen levels fall abruptly at menopause, inducing a variety of physiologic and metabolic responses. Rates of cardiovascular disease increase and bone density begins to decrease rapidly after menopause.
In the United States, women live on average about 5 years longer than men, with a life expectancy at birth in 2004 of 80.4 years, compared to 75.2 years in men.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 13
percent of women aged eighteen years and older are in poor, or merely
fair, health. More than 12 percent of women face a limitation in their
usual activities due to chronic health conditions. In addition, 62 percent
of women aged twenty years and older are overweight, a key predictor
of future health problems. Moreover, the medical concerns
women face often differ from those of most concern to men.
The American Medical Association Complete Guide to Men’s Health provides
up-to-date information that will enable you to adopt healthy habits that you can
follow throughout your life. The book emphasizes the basics of a healthy
lifestyle and the steps you can take to prevent illness.
In clear, easy-to-understand language, this book describes how different body
systems work, answers many questions you may have about common diseases
and disorders, and explains how many of these conditions can be prevented.
PDi and LDi are aimed at testing the incidence of adverse selection: whether firms in
poor financial health and/or facing liquidity constraints are more likely to seek and get access
to bank credit. In the case of the liquidity dummy there is no ambiguity about the causality
and the interpretation of the results in terms of adverse selection. However, in the case of the
profitability dummy, again we cannot fully eliminate the endogeneity problem because – as
mentioned before – firm’s profit/loss position may affect also bank’s decision to extend the
Someone with a physical illness or disability often needs hands-on or
stand-by assistance with activities of daily living (see page 19). People
with cognitive impairments usually need supervision, protection or verbal
reminders to do everyday activities. The way long-term care services are
provided is changing. Skilled care and personal care are still the terms used
most often to describe long-term care and the type or level of care you
We all know it’s not always easy as women to live up to what’s expected of
us in the 21st century.We’re supposed to run the family, the home and a job
and stillwe struggle with inequalities in thewaywomen are treated, particularly
around those everyday issues such as balancing home and family life,
or women’s lack of equal pay. It’s hardly surprising that the incidence of
stress and depression is rising. But we rarely encounter women who are
experiencing the severe and enduring conditions of mental illness and
distress that are described here....
International travel is undertaken by large, and ever increasing, numbers of people
for professional, social, recreational and humanitarian purposes. More people
travel greater distances and at greater speed than ever before, and this upward
trend looks set to continue. Travellers are thus exposed to a variety of health risks
in unfamiliar environments. Most such risks, however, can be minimized by suitable
precautions taken before, during and after travel.
We are well on the way to implementing health reform and establishing Affordable Insurance Exchanges – one-stop marketplaces where consumers can choose a private health insurance plan that fits their health needs and have the same kind of insurance choices as members of Congress. Today, the Treasury Department issued proposed regulations implementing the premium tax credit that gives middle-class Americans unprecedented tax benefits to make it easier for them to purchase affordable health insurance....
Prevention of Gastrointestinal Illness Diarrhea, the leading cause of illness in travelers (Chap. 122), is usually a short-lived, self-limited condition; however, 40% of affected individuals need to alter their scheduled activities, and another 20% are confined to bed. The most important determinant of risk is the destination. Incidence rates per 2-week stay have been reported to be as low as 8% in industrialized countries and as high as 55% in parts of Africa, Central and South America, and Southeast Asia. Infants and young adults are at particularly high risk.
The charge to the Committee on Crossing the Quality Chasm: Adaptation
to Mental Health and Addictive Disorders was broad, encompassing
health care for both mental and substance-use conditions, the public and
private sectors, and the comprehensive range of issues addressed in the 2001
Institute of Medicine report Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health
System for the 21st Century. The committee was pleased to be asked to
address this breadth of issues.
If you have ever been asked by a client, family member, student, or policy maker, if
there is more to treatment for mental illness than just symptom reduction, this book is
for you. This question fi rst emerges from the idea that the pursuit of health is a common,
human goal, intrinsic to all individuals in all societies. This is not a new phenomenon.
However, there are certain groups who suffer greatly from the dual challenge of physical
illness and mental health conditions. In their case, health has been less of a goal and
more of a byproduct following treatment for distressing symptoms.
Whereas U.S. cities have seen dramatic improvements in air quality over the last three decades1,
Mexico City has been considerably less successful. Levels of major air pollutants in Mexico City
routinely exceed maximum exposure limits established by the World Health Organization (WHO).
For example, the WHO has warned that eight-hour average ozone levels exceeding 100 micrograms
per cubic meter threaten human health.
2 During the period 1986-2005, this guideline was exceeded
in Mexico City for 92% of all days.
A large literature documents the social cost of air pollution (e.g.
Although women account for more physician office visits than
men, most women receive diagnoses and treatments based on
what has worked for men. Until recently, medical research has
largely ignored many health issues important to women, and
women have long been under-represented in clinical trials. Many
health education programs have realized this inequity and
have begun to incorporate women’s health programs into their
The demographic changes within populations, especially in developing
regions, are projected to occur at a rate of three and a half times from
1980 to 2020, causing a rapid increase in the over-60 population. With
more people living longer, the burden of unnecessary blindness from
trachoma among older people is estimated to be very high. And, of the
projected 50 million blind people living in low-income societies by the
year 2020, roughly 38 million will be women.