Trends in needing help with such activities as housework or shopping may be
due to changes in the physical abilities of the older population, but they may also be
related to the availability of help in the house, either familial or paid, the availability
of appliances, and the accessibility of transportation (1, 12). However, causes of
trends in IADL functioning have not been apportioned to reasons residing in the
person and reasons outside the person.
The trends in what is termed ADL disability have not been nearly as consistent
as those in IADL disability (31).
The numerical stability of the Levinson-Durbin algorithm for solving the Yule-Walker equations with a positive-definite symmetric Toeplitz matrix is studied. Arguments based on the analytic results of an error analysis for fixed-point and floating-point arithmetics show that the algorithm is stable and in fact comparable to the Cholesky algorithm. Conflicting evidence on the accuracy performance of the algorithm is explained by demonstrating that the underlying Toeplitz matrix is typically ill-conditioned in most applications....
The available evidence suggests that they are not. Every five years, the Census Bureau
conducts its nationwide Survey of Business Owners. The SBO samples privately held,
nonfarm businesses of all ages, from recently founded to many years in existence. Using
SBO data, the American Express OPEN report for 2011 found that just 1.8 percent of
women-owned firms had revenues more than $1 million. The figure for men-owned firms
was 6.3 percent
In public perception, the $1 million threshold has become a sort of magic number.
This session will be an opportunity to reflect on how development cooperation actors can best hold each other to account
for commitments made on gender equality, women’s rights and the empowerment of women at sub-national, sector,
national, regional and global levels.
Throughout the late-1940s and 1950s, the top marginal tax rate was typically above 90%; today it
is 35%. Additionally, the top capital gains tax rate was 25% in the 1950s and 1960s, 35% in the
1970s; today it is 15%. The real GDP growth rate averaged 4.2% and real per capita GDP
increased annually by 2.4% in the 1950s. In the 2000s, the average real GDP growth rate was
1.7% and real per capita GDP increased annually by less than 1%. This analysis finds no
conclusive evidence, however, to substantiate a clear relationship between the 65-year reduction
in the top...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Commentary: Ensuring health statistics in conflict are evidence-based...
Social capital refers to relationships of trust
and mutuality that can be mobilized to achieve
instrumental ends. Social capital is the relationship
glue through which individuals, families and social
networks navigate economic opportunity, social
conflict and various institutions. While social capital
is not just built through place-based networks, locality
plays a role, particularly in many economically
I have accepted no statement of fact, however generally made, until I was fully persuaded from my own
personal investigation that what I heard was really a fact and not a rumour.
Wherever I have ventured upon conclusions, I claim for them neither infallibility nor originality. They are
offered frankly as my own latest and clearest thoughts upon the various subjects discussed. If any man can
give me better evidence for the error of my conclusions than I have for the truth of them I am prepared to go
with him, and gladly, as far as he can prove his way. And I have offered...
Progress towards gender equality is a critical issue for us. …..First we will adopt measures
to restore those rights to our women and girls that they were denied because of the
segregationist policies of the Taliban and the threat to their personal security during periods
of conflict. To support this, we will need to create women's specific opportunities that will
allow them to catch up with men and boys.
Medicine without statistics is quackery; statistics without medicine is numerology. Perhaps
this is the main reason why clinicians should care about statistics.
Statistics in medicine began in the early nineteenth century (it was called “the numerical
method” then) and its debut involved disproving the most common and widely accepted
medical treatment for millennia: bleeding. From ancient Rome until 1900, all physicians –
from Galen to Avicenna to Benjamin Rush – strongly and clearly advocated bleeding as the
treatment for most medical illnesses.
A cascade of events (signal-transduction), mainly seen in rat
cardiac myocytes and renal cells, is thought to occur after
ouabain interaction with a minor fraction of Na
-ATPase. Ahigher intracellularNa
sodium pump inhibition by ouabain with a subsequent
gradual increase or oscillations in intracellular Ca
con-centration. Whether this increase in intracellular Ca
concentration is part of the cascade, a result of the cascadeor
a totally independent phenomenon are conflicting interpre-tations that are discussed. ...
The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling
pathway plays a major role in a number of pathophysio-logical conditions. However, there have been conflicting
evidences regarding the action of cAMP/PKA on nuclear
factor-jB(NF-jB). Inthis study,wehaveexplored the effect
of cAMP/PKA on NF-jBactivity and determined its
molecular mechanism. PKA activating agents or expression
of thecatalyticsubunitofPKA(PKAc) inhibitedtheNF-jB-dependent reporter gene expression induced by tumor nec-rosis factora(TNFa). ...
If better management (BMP) was adopted in Vietnam there is evidence that the current trends and past environmental degradation can be stopped and even reversed, and shrimp production efficiency can be increased.
Living arrangements, particularly overcrowded
conditions and a lack of privacy, have been
associated with conflict within families. Although
abuse can occur when the abuser and the older
person suffering abuse live apart, the older person is
more at risk when living with the caregiver.
The early theories on the subject also sought to
associate dependency with increased risk of abuse.
Globalization has perhaps been the notion most widely used and debated by the
social sciences in the last decade of the twentieth century and in the first years of
the twenty-first. Subject to diverse and sometimes conflicting interpretations, the
concept has also been the target—as shown in Chap. 1—of harsh criticisms from
authors who have contested its real meaningfulness and extent.
This paper considers the problem of policy evaluation in a modern society with heterogeneous
agents and diverse groups with conflicting interests. Several different approaches to the policy evaluation
problem are compared including the approach adopted in modern welfare economics, the classical
representative agent approach adopted in macroecononomics and the microeconomic treatment effect
approach. A new approach to the policyevaluationproblemis developed and applied that combines and
extends the best features of these earlier approaches.
The poems of Homer differ from all other known poetry in this, that they constitute in themselves an
encyclopædia of life and knowledge at a time when knowledge, indeed, such as lies beyond the bounds of
actual experience, was extremely limited, but when life was singularly fresh, vivid, and expansive.
There is no published evidence and conflicting expert opinion on the treatment of malnourished
patients, and the specification and treatment of at-risk patients (those with diarrhoea, vomiting,
physical illness, weight loss, poor diet), with the majority of experts recommending parenteral
vitamin supplementation during detoxification.
To stress the salience and urgency of the national situation
as dictated by contemporary terrorism and to
underscore the need for behavioral and social science
understandings of that situation are to pronounce the
self-evident. Terrorism, already recognized by some as the
looming form of international conflict in the late twentieth century,
moved dramatically to center stage on September 11, 2001,
and promises to occupy national attention for decades.