Congress established

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  • Real estate investment trusts (“REITs”) have been around for more than fifty years. Congress established REITs in 1960 to allow individual investors to invest in large-scale, income-producing real estate. REITs provide a way for individual investors to earn a share of the income produced through commercial real estate ownership – without actually having to go out and buy commercial real estate. What is a REIT? A REIT, generally, is a company that owns – and typically operates – income-producing real estate or real estate-related assets.

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  • Congress established a standing disaster program in the 2008 farm bill— the Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program. Under this program, Congress funded a $3.8 billion permanent trust fund and directed the Secretary of Agriculture to make crop disaster assistance payments to eligible farmers who suffer crop losses on or before September 30, 2011. USDA—through FSA—began making disaster payments under this program in early 2010 for crop losses incurred in 2008.

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  • The United States Constitution established the world’s first federal system encompassing an economic union and a political union whose central characteristic is dual sovereignty with Congress possess- ing delegated powers and states possessing reserved or residual powers. A federal system automatically raises questions pertaining to the nature of appropriate relations between the national government and state gov- ernments at the boundary lines of their respective authority and between sister states each possessing equal powers.

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  • Communities have different ways of organizing participation, for example community assemblies, solidarity committees, and so on. Bolivia has an interesting form of citizen participation called vigilance committees. These committees oversee the proper expenditure of project money and the mayor’s work in ensuring the needs and demands of communities are met. The workshop’s participants are now asking whether projects built by social funds are sustainable.

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  • Every generation demands that history shall be rewritten. This is not alone because it requires that the work should be adapted to its own point of view, but because it is instinctively seeking those lines which connect the problems and lessons of the past with its own questions and circumstances. If it were not for the existence of lines of this kind, history might be entertaining, but would have little real value. The more numerous they are between the present and any earlier period, the more valuable is, for us, the history of that period.

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  • The papers contained within this book were presented at the World Scientific Congress of Golf held at the University of St Andrews from 4th to 8th July, 1994. The papers and their authors represent a wide diversity not only of sciences themselves, but also of vocations—including golfers who also happen to be scientists, scientists who see interesting applications in golf, scientifically minded coaches and professional scientists working for equipment manufacturers.

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  • The long-term good health of populations depends on the continued stability and functioning of the biosphere’s ecological and physical systems, often referred to as life-support systems. We ignore this long-established historical truth at our peril: yet it is all too easy to overlook this dependency, particularly at a time when the human species is becoming increasingly urbanized and distanced from these natural systems.

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  • In the Northeast, the solvents emitted in the greatest quantities from furniture finishing are toluene, xylenes, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and methanol. 3 All of these compounds are flammable liquids that quickly evaporate in air. In addition, the U.S. EPA considers them hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) that can cause adverse health effects and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can contribute to ambient air quality problems.

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  • An important function of the Federal Reserve is ensuring that enough cash—that is, currency and coin—is in circulation to meet the public’s demand. When Congress established the Federal Reserve, it recognized that the public’s demand for cash is variable. This demand increases or decreases seasonally and as the level of economic activity changes. For example, in the weeks leading up to a holiday season, depository institu- tions increase their orders of currency and coin from Reserve Banks to meet their customers’ demand.

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  • On behalf of the Turkish Society of Molecular Medicine, it is my great pleasure to welcome you to our III. International Con- gress of Molecular Medicine. The comprehensive scope of our meeting, addressing the interests of physicians, scientists and other healthcare professionals and the industry, may be challeng- ing to all at the same time. We aim to merge our interest in mo- lecular medicine and to establish a link between basic and clini- cal sciences. For the clinician, there is the opportunity to focus on advances in the basic sciences forming the basis of clinical practice.

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  • Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities—as well as new and significant risks. Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics, and other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies.

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  • The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, established by Congress in 1968 and headquartered in Washington, D.C., is a living national memorial to President Wilson. The Center’s mission is to commemorate the ideals and concerns of Woodrow Wilson by providing a link between the worlds of ideas and policy, while fostering research, study, discussion, and collaboration among a broad spectrum of individuals concerned with policy and scholarship in national and international affairs.

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  • Under the Clean Air Act, particulate matter (PM) is one of the major air pollutants for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are to be established on the basis of the scientific evidence on risks to human health. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), other federal and state government agencies, and nongovernment organizations are conducting a major multiyear research effort to improve scientific understanding of airborne PM and its effects on human health.

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  • We are well on the way to implementing health reform and establishing Affordable Insurance Exchanges – one-stop marketplaces where consumers can choose a private health insurance plan that fits their health needs and have the same kind of insurance choices as members of Congress. Today, the Treasury Department issued proposed regulations implementing the premium tax credit that gives middle-class Americans unprecedented tax benefits to make it easier for them to purchase affordable health insurance....

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  • The International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology is a non-profit organisation established in 1986 for the purpose of promoting science and research into all aspects of gynecological endocrinology and communication between scientists interested in these subjects. The Society operates through the monthly Journal of Gynecological Endocrinology, the monthly newsletter GynEndo News and the biannual World Congress, a major scientific event which allows a perfect integration of renowned faculty members with talented young scientists presenting innovative research.

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  • By creating the Federal Reserve System, Congress intended to eliminate the severe f inancial crises that had periodically swept the nation, especially the sort of f inancial panic that occurred in 1907. During that episode, payments were disrupted throughout the country because many banks and clearinghouses refused to clear checks drawn on certain other banks, a practice that contributed to the failure of otherwise solvent banks. To address these problems, Congress gave the Federal Reserve System the authority to establish a nationwide check-clearing system.

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  • More recent congressional action has focused increasingly on improving the eff iciency of the payments system by encouraging increased use of technology. In 1987, Congress enacted the Expedited Funds Availability Act (EFAA), which gave the Board, for the f irst time, the authority to regulate the payments system in general, not just those payments made through the Reserve Banks.

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  • Independent, non-partisan agency which assists Congress in investigating and reporting on government’s effectiveness in using public funds. Uniform minimum standards of and guidelines to financial accounting and reporting. Currently, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) and the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory are authorized to establish these principles. Standards governing the conduct of external audits by CPAs, as determined by the Auditing Standards Board (ASB) of the AICPA.

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  • The role for Congress in this financial crisis is multifaceted. While the recent focus has been on combating the recession, the ultimate issue perhaps is how to ensure the smooth and efficient functioning of financial markets to promote the general well-being of the country while protecting taxpayer interests and facilitating business operations without creating a moral hazard.

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  • Similarly, the Susquehanna River Basin Compact established the Susquehanna River Basin Commission, another federal-interstate regulatory collaboration by Congress and the member states. It is parallel in structure and authority to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Any decision of the Commission involves the approval of all of the member parties, which include the states of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New York, as well as the federal government.

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