Real estate investment trusts (“REITs”) have been
around for more than fifty years. Congress established
REITs in 1960 to allow individual investors to invest
in large-scale, income-producing real estate. REITs
provide a way for individual investors to earn a share
of the income produced through commercial real
estate ownership – without actually having to go out
and buy commercial real estate.
What is a REIT?
A REIT, generally, is a company that owns – and
typically operates – income-producing real estate or
real estate-related assets.
Congress established a standing disaster program in the 2008 farm bill—
the Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program. Under this
program, Congress funded a $3.8 billion permanent trust fund and
directed the Secretary of Agriculture to make crop disaster assistance
payments to eligible farmers who suffer crop losses on or before
September 30, 2011. USDA—through FSA—began making disaster
payments under this program in early 2010 for crop losses incurred in
The United States Constitution established the world’s first federal
system encompassing an economic union and a political union
whose central characteristic is dual sovereignty with Congress possess-
ing delegated powers and states possessing reserved or residual powers.
A federal system automatically raises questions pertaining to the nature
of appropriate relations between the national government and state gov-
ernments at the boundary lines of their respective authority and between
sister states each possessing equal powers.
Communities have different ways of organizing participation, for example
community assemblies, solidarity committees, and so on. Bolivia has an
interesting form of citizen participation called vigilance committees. These
committees oversee the proper expenditure of project money and the
mayor’s work in ensuring the needs and demands of communities are met.
The workshop’s participants are now asking whether projects built by
social funds are sustainable.
Every generation demands that history shall be rewritten. This is not alone because it requires that the work
should be adapted to its own point of view, but because it is instinctively seeking those lines which connect
the problems and lessons of the past with its own questions and circumstances. If it were not for the existence
of lines of this kind, history might be entertaining, but would have little real value. The more numerous they
are between the present and any earlier period, the more valuable is, for us, the history of that period.
The papers contained within this book were presented at the World Scientific
Congress of Golf held at the University of St Andrews from 4th to 8th July, 1994.
The papers and their authors represent a wide diversity not only of sciences
themselves, but also of vocations—including golfers who also happen to be
scientists, scientists who see interesting applications in golf, scientifically
minded coaches and professional scientists working for equipment
The long-term good health of populations depends on the continued stability and
functioning of the biosphere’s ecological and physical systems, often referred to
as life-support systems. We ignore this long-established historical truth at our
peril: yet it is all too easy to overlook this dependency, particularly at a time
when the human species is becoming increasingly urbanized and distanced from
these natural systems.
In the Northeast, the solvents emitted in the greatest quantities from furniture finishing are toluene,
xylenes, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) and methanol.
All of these
compounds are flammable liquids that quickly evaporate in air. In addition, the U.S. EPA
considers them hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) that can cause adverse health effects and volatile
organic compounds (VOCs) that can contribute to ambient air quality problems.
An important function of the Federal Reserve is ensuring that enough
cash—that is, currency and coin—is in circulation to meet the public’s
demand. When Congress established the Federal Reserve, it recognized
that the public’s demand for cash is variable. This demand increases or
decreases seasonally and as the level of economic activity changes. For
example, in the weeks leading up to a holiday season, depository institu-
tions increase their orders of currency and coin from Reserve Banks to
meet their customers’ demand.
On behalf of the Turkish Society of Molecular Medicine, it is
my great pleasure to welcome you to our III. International Con-
gress of Molecular Medicine. The comprehensive scope of our
meeting, addressing the interests of physicians, scientists and
other healthcare professionals and the industry, may be challeng-
ing to all at the same time. We aim to merge our interest in mo-
lecular medicine and to establish a link between basic and clini-
cal sciences. For the clinician, there is the opportunity to focus
on advances in the basic sciences forming the basis of clinical
Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented
opportunities—as well as new and significant risks. Civil rights activists have long argued that one
of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics, and other minority groups have difficulty
establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts
that are generated by large companies.
The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars,
established by Congress in 1968 and headquartered in Washington, D.C.,
is a living national memorial to President Wilson. The Center’s mission
is to commemorate the ideals and concerns of Woodrow Wilson by providing
a link between the worlds of ideas and policy, while fostering
research, study, discussion, and collaboration among a broad spectrum
of individuals concerned with policy and scholarship in national and
Under the Clean Air Act, particulate matter (PM) is one of the major air
pollutants for which National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are
to be established on the basis of the scientific evidence on risks to human
health. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), other federal and
state government agencies, and nongovernment organizations are conducting
a major multiyear research effort to improve scientific understanding of
airborne PM and its effects on human health.
We are well on the way to implementing health reform and establishing Affordable Insurance Exchanges – one-stop marketplaces where consumers can choose a private health insurance plan that fits their health needs and have the same kind of insurance choices as members of Congress. Today, the Treasury Department issued proposed regulations implementing the premium tax credit that gives middle-class Americans unprecedented tax benefits to make it easier for them to purchase affordable health insurance....
The International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology is a non-profit
organisation established in 1986 for the purpose of promoting science and
research into all aspects of gynecological endocrinology and communication
between scientists interested in these subjects.
The Society operates through the monthly Journal of Gynecological
Endocrinology, the monthly newsletter GynEndo News and the biannual
World Congress, a major scientific event which allows a perfect integration
of renowned faculty members with talented young scientists presenting
By creating the Federal Reserve System, Congress intended to eliminate
the severe f inancial crises that had periodically swept the nation, especially
the sort of f inancial panic that occurred in 1907. During that episode,
payments were disrupted throughout the country because many banks
and clearinghouses refused to clear checks drawn on certain other banks,
a practice that contributed to the failure of otherwise solvent banks. To
address these problems, Congress gave the Federal Reserve System the
authority to establish a nationwide check-clearing system.
More recent congressional action has focused increasingly on improving
the eff iciency of the payments system by encouraging increased use of
technology. In 1987, Congress enacted the Expedited Funds Availability
Act (EFAA), which gave the Board, for the f irst time, the authority to
regulate the payments system in general, not just those payments made
through the Reserve Banks.
Independent, non-partisan agency which assists Congress in
investigating and reporting on government’s effectiveness in using
Uniform minimum standards of and guidelines to financial accounting
and reporting. Currently, the Financial Accounting Standards Board
(FASB), the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) and
the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory are authorized to establish
Standards governing the conduct of external audits by CPAs, as
determined by the Auditing Standards Board (ASB) of the AICPA.
The role for Congress in this financial crisis is multifaceted. While the recent focus has been on
combating the recession, the ultimate issue perhaps is how to ensure the smooth and efficient
functioning of financial markets to promote the general well-being of the country while
protecting taxpayer interests and facilitating business operations without creating a moral hazard.
Similarly, the Susquehanna River Basin Compact established the Susquehanna River Basin
Commission, another federal-interstate regulatory collaboration by Congress and the member states. It
is parallel in structure and authority to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Any decision of the
Commission involves the approval of all of the member parties, which include the states of Maryland,
Pennsylvania, and New York, as well as the federal government.