Consideration of alternatives

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  • This handbook is the product of a team effort. Jock Anderson, Howard Barnum, John Dixon, and Jee-Peng Tan contributed to the chapters on risk analysis, assessment of health projects, environmental externalities, and on the assessment of education projects, respectively, with valuable input on the latter from George Psacharopoulos. Rodrigo Archondo-Callao, Shantayanan Devarajan, Colin A. Gannon, Pablo Guerrero, Kenneth M. Gwilliam, Ian G. Heggie, David Hughart, Howard Jones, Ulrich Lachler, Julio Linares, Ricardo Martin, Roberto Mosse, A. Mead Over, David A.

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  • Algorithms play the central role both in the science and practice of computing. Recognition of this fact has led to the appearance of a considerable number of textbooks on the subject. By and large, they follow one of two alternatives in presenting algorithms. One classifies algorithms according to a problem type. Such a book would have separate chapters on algorithms for sorting, searching, graphs, and so on. The advantage of this approach is that it allows an immediate comparison of, say, the efficiency of different algorithms for the same problem.

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  • When good science makes an advance it pauses and turns to reacquaint itself with the modes of thought that immediately preceded it. Science orients itself with respect to these modes of thought, examines its connections, debts and disputes with them, decides whether it is operating at a different level of analysis and with respect to different interests, conceptualisations and subject matter. The present volume is a case in point of good science in this sense. It addresses medical pluralism, a founding concept of the field of medical anthropology.

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  • When good science makes an advance it pauses and turns to reacquaint itself with the modes of thought that immediately preceded it. Science orients itself with respect to these modes of thought, examines its connections, debts and disputes with them, decides whether it is operating at a different level of analysis and with respect to different interests, conceptualisations and subject matter. The present volume is a case in point of good science in this sense. It addresses medical pluralism, a founding concept of the field of medical anthropology.

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  • The use of non-biomedical therapeutics and the management of cancer are high profile issues in health internationally. They both generate, in their own right, considerable debate amongst academics, practitioners and the wider public. Increasingly, as non-biomedical approaches have become more and more a feature of the range of therapeutic options available to cancer patients, the two have become inextricably linked. This book is concerned with that increasingly evident combination.

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  • The primary objective of this book is to present the economic and ecological principles essential for a clear understanding of the complex contemporary environmental and natural resource issues and policy considerations. Several textbooks have been written on this subject in recent years. One may ask, then, what exactly differentiates this one from the others?

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  • Given these considerations, solving the routing problem can be seen as a choice among three alternatives. Common to the three alternatives is the need to broadcast some piece of information to all the servers in the network, where the broadcast is required by the lack of a priori knowledge of locality. The first alternative broadcasts notifications, which implies that notification matching is performed at each local server based on the subscriptions received at that server.

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  • Effective Length of Compression Members 52.1 52.2 52.3 Introduction Isolated Columns Framed Columns — Alignment Chart Method Alignment Chart Method • Requirements for Braced Frames • Simplified Equations. to Alignment Charts 52.4 Modifications to Alignment Charts Different Restraining Girder End Conditions • Consideration of Partial Column Base Fixity • Columns Restrained by Tapered Rectangular Girders 52.5 Lian Duan California Department of Transportation Framed Columns — Alternative Methods LeMessurier Method • Lui Method • Remarks 52.6 52.7 52.8 52.

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  • As the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has pointed out, it has become increasingly important to look beyond the traditional earnings and economic value effects and assess indirect interest rate effects as well. Taking a broader view of the potential earnings impact of changing interest rates, banks also need to take into consideration the growing share of (interest-sensitive) fee- based fi nancial services (loan servicing, asset securitization programs, pay- ments etc.).

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  • Once we have determined the relevant cash-flow information necessary to make capital budgeting decisions, we need to evaluate the attractiveness of the various investment proposals under consideration. The investment decision will be to either accept or reject each proposal. In this chapter we study alternative methods of project evaluation and selection. In addition, we address some of the potential difficulties encountered in trying to implement these methods.

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  • Once we have determined the relevant cash-flow information necessary to make capital budgeting decisions, we need to evaluate the attractiveness of the various investment proposals under consideration. The investment decision will be to either accept or reject each proposal. In this chapter we study alternative methods of project evaluation and selection.

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  • Furthermore, I would like to thank my colleagues Svitlana Voronkova and Bartosz Gebka who were steady sources of inspiration and discussion. I also appreciate the excellent cooperation in joint projects with both of them. Other colleagues at European University Viadrina who contributed to the success of my work were among others Katarzyna Grinberg, Tomasz Wi´ sniewski, Piotr Korczak, and Dobromi lSerwa. As I presented the papers included in this thesis on several conferences, I obtained valuable insights on the subjects of interest.

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  • Herbs and traditional medicines are being extensively used for healthcare in almost all the countries since times immemorial. Ancient religious texts are replete with references on the use of natural products with medicinal properties. Because of local beliefs and practices and also from cost considerations herbal medicines remain a popular mode of treatment in the developing countries. Even in the industrialised society the rising cost of prescription drugs and ensuing side effects of the treatment make it highly attractive to use the traditional medicine particularly for minor ailments....

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  • This report releases the findings of a project undertaken with Delegates of Working Party No. 2 of the OECD Committee on Fiscal Affairs, investigating policy considerations in the tax treatment of capital gains of individuals and alternative design features of capital gains tax provisions, with a focus on the ‘pure domestic’ case (capital gains/losses of resident taxpayers on domestic assets).

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  • This book, Environmental Toxicology, is essentially the third, updated and improved version of the highly successful second edition of Principles of Environmental Toxicology. Basically the same outlay of chapters and the way of presentation were maintained; however, considerable changes and improvement were incorporated into this edition

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  • The use of alternative fuels to displace coal reduces reliance on fossil fuels, reduces emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants, and contributes to long-term cost savings for cement plants. Further, due to their high burning temperatures, cement kilns are well-suited for accepting and efficiently utilizing a wide range of wastes that can present a disposal challenge. This report begins with an overview of the types of alternative fuels used in cement kilns, focusing on energy and environmental considerations.

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  • Your goals for this “merchandising” chapter are to learn about: Merchandising businesses and related sales recognition issues. Purchase recognition issues for the merchandising business. Alternative inventory system: The perpetual method. Enhancements of the income statement. The control structure.

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  • Kanchha’s father immediately found a job in a brick kiln factory not very far from the city. These kilns produce highly concentrated amounts of fine particulate matter, which interact with other industrial and vehicle fumes over Kathmandu. Brick kilns use coal as their main fuel source, and this contributes to the air pollution in Kathmandu by pumping considerable quantities of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and other toxic substances into the atmosphere. After a few months, Kanchha’s father started to cough.

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  • At the present time the majority of cases of prostate cancer in the United Kingdom are identified following “opportunistic screening” or “case finding” whereby men present to their clinician for one of a number of other reasons and then undergo PSA-testing, ideally following appropriate and adequate counselling. A smaller proportion of cases are identified following clinical presentation with lower urinary tract symptoms or with the symptoms related to advanced prostate cancer.

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  • What are anomalies/outliers? The set of data points that are considerably different than the remainder of the data Variants of Anomaly/Outlier Detection Problems Given a database D, find all the data points x  D with anomaly scores greater than some threshold t Given a database D, find all the data points x  D having the top-n largest anomaly scores f(x) Given a database D, containing mostly normal (but unlabeled) data points, and a test point x, compute the anomaly score of x with respect to D Applications: Credit card fraud detection, telecommunication fraud detection, netwo...

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