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The mathematical modeling of microstructures in solids is a fascinating topic
that combines ideas from different fields such as analysis, numerical simulation,
and materials science. Beginning in the 80s, variational methods have
been playing a prominent rˆole in modern theories for microstructures, and
surprising developments in the calculus of variations were stimulated by questions
arising in this context.
The ideas of Johann (John) von Neumann (1903-1957) had a major influence on the architecture of digital computers. He investigated the use of logic gates based on nonlinear dielectric constants. In 1953 he proposed that stimulated emission in a semiconductor material could be used to provide light
Kumagai et al. AMB Express 2011, 1:23 http://www.amb-express.com/content/1/1/23
Sensitivity to electrical stimulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and MAGIC-5 cells
Etsuko Kumagai1*, Masato Tominaga2 and Shinji Harada3
Abstract To determine the sensitivities to low electrical potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and its target cells, HIV-1 and MAGIC-5 cells were directly stimulated with a constant direct current potential of 1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl).
In the search for new ligands for the plasminogen kringle 4
binding-protein tetranectin, it has been found by ligand blot
analysis andELISAthat tetranectinspecificallybound to the
plasminogen-like hepatocyte growth factor and tissue-type
plasminogen activator.The dissociation constants of these
complexes were found to be within the same order of mag-nitude as the one for the plasminogen-tetranectin complex.
The study also revealed that tetranectin did not interact
with the kindred proteins: macrophage-stimulating protein,
urokinase-type plasminogen activator and prothrombin....
The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)
proteins have initiallybeendescribedas cytoplasmicproteins
that enter the nucleus only after cytokine treatment of cells.
Contrary to this assumption, it was demonstrated that
STATs are constantly shuttling between nucleus and cyto-plasm irrespective of cytokine stimulation. This happens
both via carrier-dependent as well as carrier-independent
transportation. Moreover, it was also recognized that cyto-kine stimulation triggers nuclear retention of dimeric
STATs, rather than affecting the rate of nuclear import. ...