Constitutional conventions

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  • The course of constitution-making within Europe has never run less smoothly. At the time of writing, French and Dutch electorates have inflicted a brutal blow upon the aspirations of European sentimentalists everywhere, rejecting the adoption of the draft constitutional treaty for Europe.

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  • Constitutional conventions are rules of practice considered binding on those to whom they apply, but they are not legally enforceable. They are of immense importance in regulating the ways in which the legal framework of the British Constitution is operated in reality. Good examples of constitutional practice governed by convention are the office of Prime Minister (not recognised by statute until 1905), the system of Cabinet government, and the principle that the Sovereign does not refuse royal assent to Bills passed by Parliament. All these emerged in the 18th century....

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  • BEING CONSCIOUS of the need to preserve the human environment in general and the marine environment in particular, RECOGNIZING that deliberate, negligent or accidental release of oil and other harmful substances from ships constitutes a serious source of pollution, RECOGNIZING ALSO the importance of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil, 1954, as being the first multilateral instrument to be concluded with the prime objective of protecting the environment, and appreciating the significant contribution which that Convention has made in preserving the ...

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  • This book is intended to be of help to students studying constitutional and administrative law who feel that they have acquired a body of knowledge, but do not feel confident about using it effectively in exams. This book sets out to demonstrate how to apply the knowledge to the question and how to structure the answer. Students, especially first-year students, often find the technique of answering problem questions particularly hard to grasp, so this book contains a large number of answers to such questions....

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  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the European Convention on Human Rights proclaim that everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, including freedom to manifest their religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice and observance. Even today, in our democratic societies too, this fundamental right is still sometimes restricted and meets with hostility and intolerance.

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  • Many policy makers and researchers believe that voluntary cost pooling of employees across small firms will make insurance affordable to these firms. This is possible because, on average, expected costs of employees at small firms are only slightly higher than large firms. We show that risk pooling across firms may not work as well as this conventional wisdom would suggest, because of large between-firm heterogeneity in employee characteristics at small firms.

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  • "The United States of America"! It was in the Declaration of Independence that this name was first and formally proclaimed to the world, and to maintain its verity the war of the Revolution was fought. Americans like to think that they were then assuming "among the Powers of the Earth the equal and independent Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them"; and, in view of their subsequent marvelous development, they are inclined to add that it must have been before an expectant world.

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  • Surface brine deposits are exploited using solar evap- oration ponds to concentrate and precipitate the potash. The evaporation ponds are extensive, with some operations covering in excess of 90 square kilo- meters of land area to produce around 8 million tonnes of potash ore per year. Conventional mechanized underground mining oper- ations are the most widely used method for the extraction of potash ore.

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  • Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory intestinal disorders affecting 1.7 million people in North America. Recent studies have shown an increasing incidence of CD in children, and an overall prevalence of 10% to 25% of all patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). 2,3 CD is characterized by patchy transmural inflammation involving any segment of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus.

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  • The vast majority of published cytogenetic studies of malignancy have been of leukemias and related hematologic disorders (see Fig. 1), even though these constitute only about 20% of all cancers. It follows that most of what is known about the clinical applications of cytogenetic studies has been derived from hematologic malignancies.

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  • By inadvertently increasing the concentration of energy-trapping gases in the lower atmosphere, human actions have begun to amplify Earth’s natural green- house effect. The primary challenge facing the world community is to achieve sufficient reduction in greenhouse gas emissions so as to avoid dangerous inter- ference in the climate system. National governments, via the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC), are committed in principle to seeking this outcome.

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  • Metamaterials, i.e. artificial materials with properties not found in nature (Caloz & Itoh, 2006; Marqués et al., 2008), have gained a lot of attention in the past decade. The virtually unlimited freedom in tailoring their constitutive parameters created hopes for the realization of unique devices, such as subwavelength lenses and invisibility cloaks, which were essentially impossible to achieve with classical materials.

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  • Article 87 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland mentions – among the universally binding legislation – also ratifi ed international conventions/agreements. It means that these con- ventions/agreements form a part of the domestic legal order and have precedence over national laws in the event of potential collision with these laws, if they have been ratifi ed upon prior consent granted by the Act of Parliament (Article 91 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland).

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  • Although the very first carbon offset project was voluntary, 2 much of the work to establish real markets for carbon offsets has been done in the context of designing regulatory programs. Many experimental carbon offset projects were undertaken in the 1990s, for example, in order to inform negotiations under the Framework Convention on Climate Change about the design of an international GHG emissions trading system.

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  • Violence against children is a global human rights and public health issue, with signifi cant negative health and social impact on children’s development. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) states that all children have the right to be protected against all forms of violence, exploitation and abuse, including sexual abuse and sexual exploitation. 1 The short- and long-term consequences of such violence are severe, not only for those who experience the violence, but also for families and communities, and constitute a critical societal concern.

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  • Susan L.Lindquist*† and Steven Henikoff‡ *Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142; and ‡The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109 Over the past half-century, the central dogma, in which DNA makes RNA makes protein, has dominated thinking in biology, with continuing refinements in understanding of DNA inheritance, gene expression, and macromolecular interactions. However, we have also witnessed the elucidation of epigenetic phenomena that violate conventional notions of inheritance.

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  • Both high import payments for petroleum motor fuels and concerns regarding emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) are motivating interest in possible fuel substitutes. Petroleum products derived from conventional crude oil constitute more than 50 percent of end-use energy deliveries in the United States and more than 95 percent

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  • Separable verbs are verbs with prefixes which, depending on the syntactic context, can occur as one word written together or discontinuously. They occur in languages such as German and Dutch and constitute a problem for NLP because they are lexemes whose forms cannot always be recognized by dictionary lookup on the basis of a text word. Conventional solutions take a mixed lexical and syntactic approach. In this paper, we propose the solution offered by Word Manager, consisting of string-based recognition by means of rules of types also required for periphrastic inflection and clitics. ...

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  • Immediately on receiving official notification of the rupture of diplomatic relations between Austria and Servia, the Turkish Grand Vizier hastened to inform the Diplomatic Corps in Constantinople that Turkey would remain neutral in the conflict.

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  • Chapter 2 - Financial reporting and analysis. Learning objectives of this chapter include: Explain the financial reporting and analysis environment; identify what constitutes generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP); describe the objectives of financial accounting; identify qualities of accounting information and principles and conventions that determine accounting rules; describe the relevance of accounting information to business analysis and valuation, and identify its limitations,...

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