Constitutive relationship

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  • WHILE POLITICS WRESTLES with the Constitutional Treaty as the founding legal document de lege ferenda, this volume presents a European constitutional law—not as a mere project but as binding, valid law, as lex lata. Of course, no document in force carries this designation. Scholarly terminology, however, does not require the blessing of politics. There are good reasons to treat the European Union’s current primary law as constitutional law.

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  • One of America’s greatest judges famously observed that ‘taxes are what we pay for civilised society’, 1 and from the earliest times English men and women were called on to pay for the costs of managing the state in an orderly way, providing an infrastructure of good government and defence. 2 As the eff ective government of a state depended to a great extent on the condition of its fi nances, the state’s power to tax its subjects was central to its relationship with them, and the law of tax its principal and voluminous formal expression....

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  • Constitutional and administrative law is one of the core subjects required for a qualifying law degree and so is a compulsory part of undergraduate law programmes and graduate diploma in law programmes. It is, however, very different from many of the other core legal subjects because it concentrates less on legal rules than on the operation of the system itself – in particular, the operation of the state and the relationship between the state and the individual.

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  • Sometimes a book is so refreshing in its perspective, so innovative, that it promises to revolutionize a field of scholarship. The Founding Fathers, Pop Culture, and Constitutional Law is one such book. It is a bold intervention into the field of constitutional interpretation, a field which Susan Burgess argues has reached a kind of scholarly impasse. Rather than tread the well-worked path with another theory of constitutional meaning, Burgess offers us a cultural studies reading of constitutional scholarship.

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  • Th e literature on the relationship between Victorian England and imperial India is growing with a welcome contribution from Subaltern Study scholars. Th e latter increasingly emphasize the dynamics, the bilateral relationship between the two societies. Previous assumptions of the passive role of indigenous peoples in those processes have been overturned by varied empirical studies.

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  • This book deals with an Ayyubid-Mamluk Egyptian jurist's attempt to come to terms with the potential conflict between power, represented in the state, and authority, represented in the schools of law, particularly where one school enjoys a privileged status with the state. It deals with the history of the relationship between the schools of law, particularly in Mamluk Egypt, in the context of the running history of Islamic law from the formative period during which ijtihad was the dominant hegemony into the post-formative period during which taqlid came to dominate....

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  • During the interval in which time series overlap, the British and French negative length was growing at roughly the same rates as the US one, until 1914. That war year constitutes a great discontinuity, and from then on European growth rates are different and far lower than US ones. At the same time, the average film length increased considerably, from eighty feet in 1897 to seven hundred feet in 1910 to three thousand feet in 1920. As a result, the total released length, which is the best indicator of production, increases more rapidly than the number released, in...

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  • The Wisconsin Family Health Survey (FHS) collects information about health insurance coverage, health status, health problems and use of health care services among Wisconsin residents. This survey began in 1989 and has been conducted annually since then. This report is based on responses collected in 2008, the same year that the BadgerCare Plus health insurance program was implemented (February 2008). The survey results presented in this report are representative of Wisconsin household residents, who constitute approximately 97 percent of all persons residing in the state.

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  • The relationship between ináation and interest rates has also been conÖrmed by numerous studies. We can summarise the results obtained in four points. The Örst is that in the long run, this relationship is nonlinear. For example, Evans and Lewis (1995) represent the ináation dynamics with a Markov process to take into account some episodic changes.

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  • Shape memory alloys have become in the past decades a well established research subject. However, the complex relations between properties and structure have created a continuously growing interest for a deeper insight all this time. The complexity of relationships between structure and properties is mostly related to the fact that strong ?multidimensional? interactions are taking place: from the early studies focusing on the thermal and/or mechanical induced phase transformations to the more recent findings on the magnetically induced structural changes.

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  • Usually, art production is dealt with by theories of creativity or portraits of the individual artist, while the viewer’s encounter with art is considered in analyses of aesthetic experience or explained by reference to empirical data about the mind/brain. This ap- proach makes it seem as if artist and viewer relate to art in radically different ways. It may appear reasonable, inasmuch as the viewer’s relationship to art in comparison to that of the artist is predominantly passive.

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  • This study does not examine the relationship between credit scores and the likelihood of insurance losses. Regulators and consumer groups have expressed growing concern that use of credit scores may restrict the availability of insurance products in predominantly minority and low income communities, markets that already show signs of significant affordability and access problems (Kabler, 2004).

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  • A ‘rule of law’ approach would promote mutual agreements and investments, but be much tougher on their implementation. For example, the European Commission should be given political support to apply competition policy in the energy sector, and to investigate some of the more dubious deals between Russian and EU companies. More generally, the EU should demand the enforcement of the growing number of agreements which have not been implemented – the PCA, the four Common Spaces and the European Energy Charter.

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  • The relationships between columns in different tables are typically described through the use of keys, which are implemented through referential integrity constraints and their supporting indexes. For example, in Figure 1-2, you can establish a link between the DEPTNO column in the second table, which is called a foreign key,to the DEPTNO column in the first table, which is referred to as the primary key of that table. Finally, even if you define many different indexes for a table, you don’t have to understand them or manage the data they contain.

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  • This book is an experiment. To be precise, the book is not an experiment, but the approach of introducing and employing new concepts of chemical engineering analysis, concurrently with new concepts in computing, as is presented within this book, is experimental. Usually, the student of a first course in chemical engineering is presented with material that builds systematically upon engineering concepts and the student works within this linear space to “master” the material. In fact, however, the process is never so linear....

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  • Breast cancer also elicits concerns regarding a woman’s view of herself. Many treat- ments for cancer challenge a woman’s body image and sexuality (Oktay, 1998). “The systemic treatment of breast cancer with chemotherapy or hormonal therapy may also affect self-image, fertility, and libido—all important components of ‘femininity’” (p. 6). The combined effects of breast surgery, loss of hair, decreased libido, and early meno- pause constitute a serious threat to a woman’s self-image.

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  • In this section, we focus on the relationship between total bank credit to non-bank borrowers and the international components of bank credit in emerging economies (see Annex 1 for sample of 31). We find that, in the years before the recent global financial crisis, a rising share of international credit was positively related to a rising ratio of bank credit to GDP.8 In other words, the evidence systematically implicates international credit in credit booms.

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  • A realistic indoor scene is typically populated by several different kinds of furniture objects, but only a few of the many possible spa- tial arrangements of these objects are functional and livable. For example, the front of a television or computer screen should not be blocked, since it is supposed to be visible. Furthermore, most of the objects in the scene should be accessible to human habitants.

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  • In the year 2006, just as the European Union was planning its 50th birthday party, the powerful and prestigious American Bar Association circulated the first fruits of a major restatement of European Community law. Whether the ABA is a nonprofit- making organisation, I am not aware; but it is hardly a philanthropic institution.Why then should this massive project have seen the light of day? One reason is that transatlantic political relationships are becoming closer.

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  • Dual-specificity phosphatases (DSPs) constitute a subfamily of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) that dephosphorylates phospho-Tyr, phos-pho-Ser and nonproteinaceous substrates. DSPs are involved in the regula-tion of both developmental and postnatal essential processes, such as early embryogenesis, placental development and immune responses.

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