Constrain one another

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  • A fund’s inventory of risks may be grouped or organized in different ways. One approach is to consider risks within two broad categories—investment risk and business operational risk. A board’s focus, though, should be on the key risks to the funds, and not on each discrete risk that exists. Investment risk is, in absolute terms, the risk of incurring any loss in the portfolio in pursuit of investment return, or, in relative terms, the risk of incurring losses greater than, or of earning gains less than, those of a benchmark index or alternative investment.

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  • At the global level, the relationship between population and environ- mental impact is not easy to test in a way that leads to reliable and non- spurious estimates. This is because of the lack of data on environmental degradation covering a sufficiently large number of countries over a suffi- ciently large period of time. It is for this reason that studies have tended to focus on CO2 emissions and energy use, for which cross-country and time- series data are available.

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  • The staff meeting is just coming to an end and there’s been a lively debate on the school’s system for end-of-course assessment. A lot of the teachers are unhappy with the present tests because they find them too grammar based and this doesn’t fit with the kind of communicative teaching that is used in class. However no one has any clear ideas about exactly what kind of system to replace it with… So, it’s been decided to appoint a project group to make proposals.

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  • In the military, you cannot fight a battle without ammunition, guns, food and transport. This is an aspect of logistics. Similarly, you cannot run a project without certain requirements, e.g. you cannot develop a curriculum without a budget, subject experts, students to benefit from the curriculum, and so forth. Project Risks Project risks are the anticipated and unanticipated obstacles that might arise in the course of a given project. A risk analysis is conducted in order to isolate the most likely ones, and involves answering the question: “What could go wrong?” ...

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  • The variety of brands and descriptions of what constitutes a brand creates opportunities for auto theft and fraud. Differences in title branding laws make it easier to sell stolen vehicles through title washing and VIN cloning. The practice of moving a salvage-branded vehicle to a state that requires different title brands or definitions to obtain a clear title is referred to as “title washing.” A person in one state, for example, repairs a damaged and salvage-branded vehicle, then moves it to another state to obtain an unbranded title.

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  • While one doubts that works of art are ever deeply prized for their aesthetic qualities alone, it is probably true that in Western societies, and in others with highly developed art traditions, aesthetic notions are most perfectly manifested in works of art, and are given their most refined expression in that type of discourse known as the philosophy of art. But the aesthetic notions so manifested and refined are those of members of the art world, not necessarily those of the general population.

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  • The relationship of demand and marginal value exactly parallels the relationship of supply and marginal cost, for a somewhat hidden reason. Supply is just negative demand, that is, a supplier is just the possessor of a good who doesn’t keep it but instead offers it to the market for sale. For example, when the price of housing goes up, one of the ways people demand less is by offering to rent a room in their house, that is, by supplying some of their housing to the market. Similarly, the marginal cost of supplying a good already produced...

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  • In Chapter ?? we considered the ways in which one could form new statements from given statements. Now we shall consider an analogous procedure, the formation of new sets from given sets. We shall assume that each of the sets that we use in the combination is a subset of some universal set, and we shall also want the newly formed set to be a subset of the same universal set. As usual, we can specify a newly formed set either by a description or by a listing.

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  • The license fee itself is defended by many as a guarantee of autonomy and the means to provide a direct link between broadcasters and the public. As Papathanassopoulos (2007: 156) argues, in contrast to the license fee, “Direct public or government funding may, in one way or another, seriously affect public broadcasters’ independence, or in the best case, the public perception of their independence.

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  • Psychiatric diagnosis requires doctors to make judgements based on their understanding of their patients’ mental states and emotional processes, and relate these to a ‘normal’ or ‘healthy standard’. Clearly this exercise is (at the very least) much more difficult where doctor and patient do not share a language, a set of concepts around the nature of mind and emotion, and an understanding of what behaviours fall within and without each others’ cultural norms.

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  • Specific writing prompts administered during testing are developed with the assistance of external prompt writers who are recruited on the basis of their expertise and to reflect the diversity of the populations served by the ACT. ACT prompt writers are male and female educators from both high schools and colleges, and they represent a variety of geographical regions, racial and ethnic backgrounds, and educational philosophies.

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  • Works of art are inscribed by the artist on the surface of reality not for their own sake. They are created in order to produce in the spectator those precisely modulated feelings whose constituent elements are represented by the letters, words and sentences of the aesthetic alphabet. We go out of our way to experience such modified feelings, both positive and negative, because they can stand in for genuine phenomena in such a way that, in being contemplated, they give rise to genuine and subtle pleasure. This pleasure has the advantage that it is in a certain sense cut...

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  • Exploring macro view on mutual fund growth as deposit substitution or as an alternative investment, information on deposit amount and deposit rates are drawn from Bank of Thailand website. Assessing growth determinants based on market benchmark, Stock market index is obtained from Stock Exchange of Thailand. Superior fund performance due to outstanding securities selection skills of fund managers come with higher price or higher management fees (Nazir and Nawaz (2010), Livingston and O’Neal (1998), and O’Neal (1999)).

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  • Where a sub-fund may have investment exposure to Europe in the context of its investment objective and strategy, in light of the fiscal conditions and concerns on sovereign debt of certain European countries, such a sub-fund may be subject to a number of risks arising from a potential crisis in Europe.

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  • Themore recent research of Sapp and Tiwari (2004), however, argues that the smart money effect documented in prior studies is an artifact of these studies’ failure to account for themomentumfactor in stock returns. Their argument can be synthesized as follows. Stocks that perform well tend to continue doing well (Jegadeesh and Titman (1993)). Investors tend to put their money into ex post best-performing funds. These funds necessarily have disproportionate hold- ings of ex post best-performing stocks.

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  • Your business, like all others, has formal and informal policies, practices, and procedures that keep it running smoothly. However, sometimes your policies or procedures can inadvertently make it difficult or impossible for a customer with a disability to access your goods and services. That is why the ADA requires businesses to make “reasonable modifications” to their usual ways of doing things when serving people with disabilities. Most modifications involve only minor adjustments in policies.

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  • Today the term big data draws a lot of attention, but behind the hype there's a simple story. For decades, companies have been making business decisions based on transactional data stored in relational databases. Beyond that critical data, however, is a potential treasure trove of non-traditional, less structured data: weblogs, social media, email, sensors, and photographs that can be mined for useful information. Decreases in the cost of both storage and compute power have made it feasible to collect this data - which would have been thrown away only a few years ago.

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  • Oracle Spatial allows users and application developers to seamlessly integrate their spatial data into enterprise applications. Oracle Spatial facilitates analysis based on the spatial relationships of associated data, like the proximity of store locations to customers within a given distance and sales revenue per territory. Oracle Spatial manages spatial data in an industry-standard database, resulting in application integration that takes place at the data server.

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  • Financial capability involves knowledge and skills, but attempts to improve these may not lead to better outcomes. What people choose to know and what they do with their knowledge may primarily depend on their intrinsic psychological attributes. Behavioural economics has identified a collection of deep seated cognitive biases that influence decisions in both financial and non-financial contexts. There is considerable evidence that these factors are present, though how widespread they are remains controversial.

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  • In the first year of an internal audit start-up, companies typically do not have a formal baseline from which to evaluate the effectiveness of control activities. As such, the initial risk assessment and audit plan are developed primarily at inherent risk level. Inherent risks are those present in the normal course of conducting business activities. These include external risks such as changes to global, national and economic climates, as well as technological, legal and political changes.

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