Xem 1-20 trên 75 kết quả Constraint functions
  • The process of finding an optimum outcome from a set of constrained resources, where the objective function and the constraints can be expressed as linear equations. The process of finding an optimum outcome from a set of constrained resources, where the objective function and the constraints can be expressed as linear equations.

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  • Hierarchical phrase-based models are attractive because they provide a consistent framework within which to characterize both local and long-distance reorderings, but they also make it dif cult to distinguish many implausible reorderings from those that are linguistically plausible. Rather than appealing to annotationdriven syntactic modeling, we address this problem by observing the in uential role of function words in determining syntactic structure, and introducing soft constraints on function word relationships as part of a standard log-linear hierarchical phrase-based model. ...

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  • The literature on business management has been focused on the reengineering of business processes in the context of the financial, management, time, and staffing constraints of private enterprise. The underlying premises of business process reengineering are

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  • This work models Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) problem as a Distributed Constraint Optimization Problem (DCOP). To model WSD as a DCOP, we view information from various knowledge sources as constraints. DCOP algorithms have the remarkable property to jointly maximize over a wide range of utility functions associated with these constraints. We show how utility functions can be designed for various knowledge sources.

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  • We present a stochastic parsing system consisting of a Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG), a constraint-based parser and a stochastic disambiguation model. We report on the results of applying this system to parsing the UPenn Wall Street Journal (WSJ) treebank. The model combines full and partial parsing techniques to reach full grammar coverage on unseen data. The treebank annotations are used to provide partially labeled data for discriminative statistical estimation using exponential models.

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  • This article describes the current state of syntactic analysis of Estonian using Constraint Grammar. Constraint Grammar framework divides parsing into two different modules: morphological disambiguation and determination of syntactic functions. This article focuses on the last module in detail. If the morphological disambiguator achieves the precision more than 85% and error rate is smaller than 2% then 80-88% of words becomes syntactically unambiguous.

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  • Semantic theories of natural language associate meanings with utterances by providing meanings for lexical items and rules for determining the meaning of larger units given the meanings of their parts. Traditionally, meanings are combined via function composition, which works well when constituent structure trees are used to guide semantic composition. More recently, the functional structure of LFG has been used to provide the syntactic information necessary for constraining derivations of meaning in a cross-linguistically uniform format. ...

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  • This paper defines a language Z~ for specifying LFG grammars. This enables constraints on LFG's composite ontology (c-structures synchronised with fstructures) to be stated directly; no appeal to the LFG construction algorithm is needed. We use f to specify schemata annotated rules and the LFG uniqueness, completeness and coherence principles. Broader issues raised by this work are noted and discussed.

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  • For languages with (semi-) free word order (such as German), labelling grammatical functions on top of phrase-structural constituent analyses is crucial for making them interpretable. Unfortunately, most statistical classifiers consider only local information for function labelling and fail to capture important restrictions on the distribution of core argument functions such as subject, object etc., namely that there is at most one subject (etc.) per clause.

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  • We show that feature logic extended by functional uncertainty is decidable, even if one admits cyclic descriptions. We present an algorithm, which solves feature descriptions containing functional uncertainty in two phases, both phases using a set of deterministic and non-deterministic rewrite rules. We then compare our algorithm with the one of Kaplan and Maxwell, that does not cover cyclic feature descriptions. 1 Introduction the form x L y , where L is a finite description of a regular language of feature paths. A constraint x L y holds if there is a path w E L such that z...

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  • Motivation for including relational constraints other than equality within grammatical formalisms has come from discontinuous constituency and partially free word order for natural languages as well as from the need to define combinatory operations at the most basic level for languages with a two-dimensional syntax (e.g., mathematical notation, chemical equations, and various diagramming languages). This paper presents F-PATR, a generalization of the PATR-II unification-based formalism, which incorporates relational constraints expressed as user-defined functions. ...

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  • This paper proposes an analysis method for Japanese modality. In this purpose, meaning of Japanese modality is classified into four semantic categories and the role of it is formalized into five modality functions. Based on these formalizations, information and constraints to be applied to the modality analysis procedure are specified. Then by combining these investigations with case analysis, the analysis method is proposed. This analysis method has been applied to Japanese analysis for machine translation. ...

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  • A constraint is proposed in the Centering approach to pronoun resolution in discourse. This "property-sharing" constraint requires that two pronominal expressions that retain the same Cb across adjacent utterances share a certain common grammatical property. This property is expressed along the dimension of the grammatical function SUBJECT for both Japanese and English discourses, where different pronominal forms are primarily used to realize the Cb. It is the zero pronominal in Japanese, and the (unstressed) overt pronoun in English.

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  • In this paper, we show that one benefit of FUG, the ability to state global conslralnts on choice separately from syntactic rules, is difficultin generation systems based on augmented context free grammars (e.g., Def'mite Clause Cn'anmm~). They require that such constraints be expressed locally as part of syntactic rules and therefore,duplicated in the grammar. Finally, we discuss a reimplementation of l U g that achieves the similar levels of efficiency as Rubinoff's adaptation of M U M B L E , a detcrministc language generator. ...

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  • The HPSG grammars we are using, closely resemble the proposals in [Pollard and Sag, 1987]. As far as the coding of the lexical functions is concerned, we have simply interpreted these as relation names. 3 Representation The main aim of the ET-10/?5 project, 'Collocations and the Lexicalisation of Semantic Operations '1, is to evaluate the use of Mel'~uk's analysis of collocations in terms of lexical functions 2, as an interlingun device in a machine translation system.

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  • Chapter 8 describes more advanced features of the SQL language standard for relational databases. In this chapter present more complex features of SQL retrieval queries, such as nested queries, joined tables, outer joins, aggregate functions, and grouping.

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  • The purpose of this book is to offer a unifying conceptual framework for the normative study of taxation and related subjects in public eco- nomics. Such a framework necessarily begins with a statement of the social objective, taken here to be the maximization of a conventional social welfare function, and then asks how various government instru- ments are best orchestrated to achieve it. The structure is built on the foundation provided by the fundamental theorems of welfare econom- ics.

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  • Society relies on well-functioning capital markets to promote economic progress in businesses and households. To that goal, academics argue that capital markets should provide for price discovery and liquidity, where the best way to find out what an asset is worth is to attempt to sell it. As long as there are a large number of market participants, bidding among them leads to price discovery, and an asset is sold quickly resulting in liquidity. Moreover, in a well functioning market the price should be close to its intrinsic value.

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  • Modern complex dynamical systems1 are highly interconnected and mutually interdependent, both physically and through a multitude of information and communication network constraints. The sheer size (i.e., dimensionality) and complexity of these large-scale dynamical systems often necessitates a hierarchical decentralized architecture for analyzing and controlling these systems. Specifically, in the analysis and control-system design of complex large-scale dynamical systems it is often desirable to treat the overall system as a collection of interconnected subsystems.

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  • In this appendix, we develop a procedure for solving a system of m linear equations in n variables subject to a constraint that all the variables are nonnegative integers. We first discuss a method for solving one equation in n unknowns. Then, we extend the method to solving a system of m equations in n unknowns.

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