Constructing a language

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  • Recent text and speech processing applications such as speech mining raise new and more general problems related to the construction of language models. We present and describe in detail several new and efficient algorithms to address these more general problems and report experimental results demonstrating their usefulness.

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  • Analog Behavioral Modeling With The Verilog-A Language provides the IC designer with an introduction to the methodologies and uses of analog behavioral modeling with the Verilog-A language. In doing so, an overview of Verilog-A language constructs as well as applications using the language are presented. In addition, the book is accompanied by the Verilog-A Explorer IDE (Integrated Development Environment), a limited capability Verilog-A enhanced SPICE simulator for further learning and experimentation with the Verilog-A language.

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  • In this paper we report our work on building a POS tagger for a morphologically rich language- Hindi. The theme of the research is to vindicate the stand that- if morphology is strong and harnessable, then lack of training corpora is not debilitating. We establish a methodology of POS tagging which the resource disadvantaged (lacking annotated corpora) languages can make use of.

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  • We investigate the lexical and syntactic flexibility of a class of idiomatic expressions. We develop measures that draw on such linguistic properties, and demonstrate that these statistical, corpus-based measures can be successfully used for distinguishing idiomatic combinations from non-idiomatic ones. We also propose a means for automatically determining which syntactic forms a particular idiom can appear in, and hence should be included in its lexical representation.

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  • Invite you to refer to Part 2 of the book Issues Related To Translation to capture the following: Chapter selections for further reading 3, quick answers to general questions, constructing a model for analysis shift in translation, professional language translators, ethics and professionalism in translation, text translator.

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  • The discipline known as Mathematical Logic will not specifically be defined within this text. Instead, you will study some of the concepts in this significant discipline by actually doing mathematical logic. Thus, you will be able to surmise for yourself what the mathematical logician is attempting to accomplish. Consider the following three arguments taken from the disciplines of military science, biology, and set-theory, where the symbols (a), (b), (c), (d), (e) are used only to locate specific sentences....

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  • We study the issue of porting a known NLP method to a language with little existing NLP resources, specifically Hebrew SVM-based chunking. We introduce two SVM-based methods – Model Tampering and Anchored Learning. These allow fine grained analysis of the learned SVM models, which provides guidance to identify errors in the training corpus, distinguish the role and interaction of lexical features and eventually construct a model with ∼10% error reduction.

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  • Building on earlier work that integrates different factors in language modeling, we view (i) backing off to a shorter history and (ii) class-based generalization as two complementary mechanisms of using a larger equivalence class for prediction when the default equivalence class is too small for reliable estimation. This view entails that the classes in a language model should be learned from rare events only and should be preferably applied to rare events.

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  • A language processor is to find out a most promising sentence hypothesis for a given word lattice obtained from acoustic signal recognition. In this paper a new language processor is proposed, in which unification granunar and Markov language model are integrated in a word lattice parsing algorithm based on an augmented chart, and the island-driven parsing concept is combined with various preference-first parsing strategies defined by different construction principles and decision rules.

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  • In this document, we present a language which associates type construction principles to constraint logic programming. We show that it is very appropriate for language processing, providing more uniform, expressive and efficient tools and treatments. We introduce three kinds of constraints, that we exemplify by motivational examples. Finally, we give the procedural semantics of our language, combining type construction with SLDresolution.

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  • This paper defines a language Z~ for specifying LFG grammars. This enables constraints on LFG's composite ontology (c-structures synchronised with fstructures) to be stated directly; no appeal to the LFG construction algorithm is needed. We use f to specify schemata annotated rules and the LFG uniqueness, completeness and coherence principles. Broader issues raised by this work are noted and discussed.

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  • This paper describes an on-going project concerning with an ontological lexical resource based on the abundant conceptual information grounded on Chinese characters. The ultimate goal of this project is set to construct a cognitively sound and computationally effective character-grounded machine-understandable resource. Philosophically, Chinese ideogram has its ontological status, but its applicability to the NLP task has not been expressed explicitly in terms of language resource.

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  • In vision, it is sometimes possible to design networks from a task analysis of ~he problem, aided by the homogeneity of the domain. For example, Sejnowski & Hinton (1986) designed a network that can separate figure from ground for shapes with incomplete bounding contours. Constructing a network is much more difficult in an inhomogeneous domain like natural language. This problem has been partially overcome by the discovery of powerful learning algorithms that allow the strengths of connection in a network to be shaped by experience; ...

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  • In this paper, we describe a method for automatic acquisition of script knowledge from a Japanese text collection. Script knowledge represents a typical sequence of actions that occur in a particular situation. We extracted sequences (pairs) of actions occurring in time order from a Japanese text collection and then chose those that were typical of certain situations by ranking these sequences (pairs) in terms of the frequency of their occurrence.

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  • Given the growing complexity of tasks that spoken dialogue systems are trying to handle, Reinforcement Learning (RL) has been increasingly used as a way of automatically learning the best policy for a system to make. While most work has focused on generating better policies for a dialogue manager, very little work has been done in using RL to construct a better dialogue state. This paper presents a RL approach for determining what dialogue features are important to a spoken dialogue tutoring system. ...

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  • All questions are implicitly associated with an expected answer type. Unlike previous approaches that require a predefined set of question types, we present a method for dynamically constructing a probability-based answer type model for each different question. Our model evaluates the appropriateness of a potential answer by the probability that it fits into the question contexts. Evaluation is performed against manual and semiautomatic methods using a fixed set of answer labels.

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  • Lecture 1 and 2 includes objectives: Introduce and describe the fundamentals of compilation techniques, assist you in writing your own compiler (or a part of it), ajenda of today’s lecture. Inviting you to refer.

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  • The purpose of the syntactic analyzer, or parser, is to construct a parse tree using as input the stream of tokens provided by the lexer. The output of the parser is usually an abstract syntax tree. The motivation for using an abstract syntax tree, rather than a parse tree. Chapter 3 - Lexical and syntactic analysis: Syntactic analysis.

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  • The creation of the Language Proficiency Handbook: A Practitioner’s Guide to Instructional Assessment (hereafter, the Language Proficiency Handbook) has been a team effort, and all the persons involved in that process are to be recognized for their contributions. For two years,the Language Proficiency Committee of the Bilingual Assessment Advisory Panel wrestled with issues and explored ideas related to the construct of language proficiency and its implications for instructional assessment. It was responsible for the development of the conceptual out line and the selection of rubrics...

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  • This book is intended to be a complete and useful reference to the Unified Model- ing Language (UML) for the developer, architect, project manager, system engi- neer, programmer, analyst, contracting officer, customer, and anyone else who needs to specify, design, build, or understand complex software systems. It pro- vides a full reference to the concepts and constructs of UML, including their se- mantics, syntax, notation, and purpose. It is organized to be a convenient but thorough reference for the working professional developer.

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