Chance events are commonplace in our daily lives. Every day we face situations where the result is uncertain, and, perhaps without realizing it, we guess about the likelihood of one outcome or another. Fortunately, mastering the concepts of probability can cast new light on situations where randomness and chance appear to rule. In this fully revised second edition of Understanding Probability, the reader can learn about the world of probability in an appealing way.
Although inelastic scattering of light from molecules, a phenomenon
now known as Raman scattering, was observed by C. V. Raman in
1928, the nonlinear phenomenon of stimulated Raman scattering was
not demonstrated until 1962. Soon after low-loss silica fibers became
available around 1970, Roger Stolen and coworkers used stimulated
Raman scattering in such fibers not only for amplification of optical signals
but also for constructing fiber-based Raman lasers.
Like many universities, the University of Central Arkansas (UCA) is surrounded by
evidence of life before cell phones, the Internet or Wi-Fi: its buildings. Constructed
with concrete block, masonry, steel and copper, these engineering marvels of the
1970s and 80s were built without consideration for future RF signals and fiber optic
cables. Their subterranean spaces and bunker-like constructions were ideal for quiet
classrooms and high traffic. Who knew they would one day absorb and impede
The first piece of hardware that I want to discuss is a network adapter. There are many different names for network adapters, including network cards, Network Interface Cards, NICs. These are all generic terms for the same piece of hardware. A network card’s job is to physically attach a computer to a network, so that the computer can participate in network communications.
The Internet is the main cause of the recent explosion of activity in optical fiber telecommunications.
The high growth rates observed on the Internet, and the popular perception that growth rates were
even higher, led to an upsurge in research, development, and investment in telecommunications. The
telecom crash of 2000 occurred when investors realized that transmission capacity in place and under
construction greatly exceeded actual traffic demand. This chapter discusses the growth of the Internet
and compares it with that of other communication services.
As the final touches are added to Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON)
standards and with next-generation GPON (N-GPON) standards already
underway, it should be clear to service providers that additional network
upgrades are imminent as demand for bandwidth continues to increase. Today’s
fiber-to-the-premise (FTTP) architectures, deployed with broadband PON (BPON)
technology, are meeting the needs of small business and residential customers,
but are they being constructed with easy upgradeability once bandwidth usage