In this chapter, students will be able to understand: Know when to use consumer loans and be able to differentiate between the major types; identify the various sources of consumer loans; choose the best loans by comparing finance charges, maturity, collateral, and other loan terms; describe the features of, and calculate the finance charges on, single-payment loans; evaluate the benefits of an installment loan; determine the costs of installment loans and analyze whether it is better to pay cash or to take out a loan.
The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Credit cards, home equity loans, etc; laws to protect consumers; rising levels of consumer debt, concerns about rising personal bankruptcy; the transformation wrought by new information technology.
Thẩm định dự án
Bài giảng 7
CHỈ SỐ GIÁ TIÊU DÙNG CONSUMER PRICE INDEX (CPI)
Tháng 3 năm 2006 Lê Thi Thanh Loan
CHỈ SỐ GIÁ TIÊU DÙNG (CPI)
• Chỉ số giá tiêu dùng đo lường sự thay đổi
bình quân về giá người tiêu dùng đã chi trả cho rổ hàng hóa và dịch vụ. • Chỉ số giá tiêu dùng là chỉ tiêu tương đối so sánh mức độ biến động giá của rổ hàng hóa trong kỳ báo cáo so với kỳ gốc.
under the multiemployer insurance program, PBgC generally provides financial
assistance to an insolvent plan in the form of a loan or loans, although it occasionally
provides lump-sum settlements in lieu of future financial assistance. loans are usually
made quarterly but sometimes monthly in an amount which, when combined with the
plan’s other income, covers both the plan’s reasonable administrative expenses and its
statutorily guaranteed benefits payments.
The second future path for social funds is as special-purpose vehicles,
providing selective seed capital to foster innovations in community de-
velopment, to experiment with new technologies, and to act as the
government’s agent in remote areas and for very small-scale activities.
Even though many of the social funds might already characterize them-
selves as special-purpose vehicles, they have gotten much broader.
The increased speed at which underwriting decisions can be made has created pressure to
complete credit applications more quickly. Some contend that the combination of this
increased pace and the increased ability to customize the price charged based on credit
allows lenders to approve a larger share of consumers for loans, but not necessarily at the
best rates for which they qualify.
Together, the empirical facts established in this paper suggest that capital regulation and
buffers may only be of second order importance in determining the capital structure of most
banks. Hence, our paper sheds new light on the debate whether regulation or market forces
determine banks’ capital structures. Barth et al. (2005), Berger et al. (2008) and Brewer et al.
(2008) observe that the levels of bank capital are much higher than the regulatory minimum.
This could be explained by banks holding capital buffers in excess of the regulatory
Yet in recent years, ailing institutions have also made use of bad banks as a method for
repairing the balance sheets without governmental interference. Between 2003 and 2005,
Dresdner Bank transferred 35.5 billion euros in toxic loans and shares which had lost
strategic relevance to a so-called Institutional Restructuring Unit (IRU).
WestLB, the Landesbank partially owned by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia,
founded a consolidation vehicle named “Phoenix” in Dublin, Ireland.
Investor base: about 70 percent of private bonds were purchased by banks in 2011. Their
participation has increased further recently partly because they have faced constraints in
expanding consumer loans given increased risk and higher cost in the sector, and therefore
have sought alternative higher-yield investment instruments.
Liquidity in the secondary
market is very limited as many banks tend to hold private bonds until maturity. Retail
investors’ participation remains low (see Figure 11). ...
The point of this table is to establish that adaptation is happening and to motivate how we
use bank data to speak to tax evasion. A number of banks in southern Europe told us point
blank that they have adaptation formulas to adjust clientsíreported income to the bankís best
estimate of true income, and furthermore, that these adjustments are speciÖc to occupations.
Table 1 shows evidence of adaptation in practice. Take the examples of lawyers, doctors,
Önancial services, and accountants.
Retail banking in the Philippines is still nascent, with consumer loans accounting for only
about 10% of total bank lending and less than 5% of GDP. That said, the consumption-driven
nature of the economy creates strong demand for consumer loans, with personal expenditure
making up 77% of GDP (Fitch Ratings (2006)). In response, the banks have recently focused
aggressively on retail lending, which is experiencing growth rates of more than 10% per
annum (albeit starting from a low base).
The loans discussed in this paper are only some of the many forms of credit available to
consumers in the Philippines, including consumer loans provided by informal institutions,
social security agencies, cooperatives, employee associations and non-banks. However, we
are unable to discuss these other forms of consumer credit in this paper due to a serious
dearth of data. In this regard, the BSP continues to lobby for the establishment of a central
credit information system so as to improve discipline in the credit markets.
This paper analyzes the importance of retail consumers’ banking relationships for loan defaults
using a unique, comprehensive dataset of over one million loans by savings banks in Germany.
We find that loans of retail customers, who have a relationship with their savings bank prior to
applying for a loan, default significantly less than customers with no prior relationship.
The original BLS commercial banking output index in-
cluded the number of transactions occurring in three main
areas of banking activity: deposits, loans, and trusts.
deposits, output was based on the number of time and sav-
ings deposits, checks cleared, and electronic funds transfers.
For loans, output was measured as the number of real estate
loans, consumer loans, commercial and industrial loans, and
credit card transactions.
Several overarching themes emerged from interviews with stakeholders in the six case-study
states regarding issues both internal and external to incentive programs that encourage and
discourage the adoption of small-scale renewable energy technologies in their respective
states. First, external factors will be discussed; illuminating the backdrop against which these
incentive programs operate is important in understanding and assessing program
Take for example an investment contract with an annuitisation option where
the annuity factor is the same as new annuities offered by the insurer at the
time the option is executed. Since the insurer is free to determine the
annuity factor, the annuitisation is in substance the formation of a new
contract, the terms of which are agreed at the date the option is exercised.
The contract cannot therefore be classified as an insurance contract
A new approach for stimulating long-term credit could be combined with developing the
capital market. This concept uses, “on-lending”, (with strict international guidelines followed
and best practices of long-term equipment financing implemented by an experienced lender),
but introduces the market mechanism of securitizing the loans generated (a pool or portfolio)
and the selling them in the capital market. This concept would allow Georgia to develop
what is known as a secondary market for loans (financial instruments).
Chapter 5A - Consumer credit. In this chapter, you will learn to: Analyze advantages and disadvantages of using consumer credit, assess the types and sources of consumer credit, determine whether you can afford a loan and how to apply for credit, determine the cost of credit by calculating interest using various interest formulas, develop a plan to protect your credit and manage your debts.
Chapter 5B: Consumer credit. In this chapter, you will learn to: Determine the cost of credit by calculating interest using various interest formulas, develop a plan to protect your credit and manage your debts, determine whether you can afford a loan and how to apply for credit.
Intuitively, the state of the business cycle can influence bank equity prices
through its impact on bank assets. During an economic boom, default rates for
loans to households and firms decline. This, in turn, boosts bank earnings and
can mitigate investors’ perception of the risk in bank profits, thereby lowering
their required return on bank stocks. Recessions have the opposite impact on
loan values and bank earnings, thereby raising required returns. In fact, the
impact is arguably asymmetric.