In the a-posteriori (post-hoc, natural or market defined) approach of market segmen-
tation, market segments are identified by forming groups of consumers that are inter-
nally homogeneous and externally heterogeneous along a set of measured consumer
characteristics ( segmentation variables). That is, a-posteriori market segments are
based on responses of consumers that are available only after a survey has been con-
It could be argued that the prevailing sense of interest rate predictability at the time of the
“conundrum” combined with a banking system willing to take huge duration exposures would
have made a policy of bond sales ineffective. But it should be remembered that this sense of
interest rate predictability was itself deliberately nurtured by the Federal Reserve policy of a
“measured pace” in increasing the Federal funds rate. The Federal Reserve was anxious to
avoid a bond market collapse similar to the one that took place around the early 1994
The preparation of human
karyotype for the first time in 1959 led to the identification of numerical aberrations in
the following years associated with Down’s, Turner and Klinefelter syndromes which
implied the need for routine screening for chromosomal anomalies in certain clinical
Despite the mixed signals, the authorities are taking steps to improve the
business climate. Zimbabwe has eased business start-up by reducing registration fees and
initiated a process to speed up the name search process and company and tax registration. In
addition, the corporate income tax rate was reduced from 30% to 25%, the capital gains tax
was lowered from 20% to 5%, and the payment of corporate income tax was simplified by
allowing quarterly payment through commercial banks.
ore and more consumers are looking for health benefits associated with their food or drink product; these concerns range from the effects of probiotics, the health benefits associated with a meat-reduction diet to the role of antioxidants in ageing and skincare. New Profit Opportunities in Health and Nutrition to 2009: Changing consumer concerns and market influencers in food and drinks reveals consumers' health concerns and the relationship between nutrition and purchasing habits.
There is also a lack of information on the cross-border exposures of large
nonbank financial institutions, despite their increasing importance in the international
financial markets as highlighted by Recommendation # 14.
The Government is clear that the development of local TV is a two-stage
process. The first stage will be roll-out on digital terrestrial television (DTT)
services where possible, which may be accompanied by some satellite and
cable services. In the second stage, local TV will be available through Internet
Protocol Television (IPTV). The rollout of super-fast broadband will mean that
local TV will eventually be available to everyone across the UK. This document
is focused on the first stage of the process. ...
No set of guidelines can cover all possible customer use cases. Each deployment of VMware vCloud Director
may have its own IT environment, with differences in network topology, internal security systems and standards,
customer requirements, and use cases. Some general guidelines will be given to increase the overall security of
the system. Where appropriate, more specific usage scenarios will also be considered along with guidance
tailored to those particular cases.
These amounts can be sizable for some products and in some situations (such as during an
economic expansion for audit premium or after a major catastrophe for reinstatement premium).
Therefore, delaying recognition of this revenue until the premium is charged could result in
distorted earnings reports.
How can they be reflected in revenue, when their amount, timing and/or assignment to individual
policies is uncertain? One way is to record as written premium an estimate of their amount.
The term ‘food miles’ refers to the distance food travels from the location where it is grown to the
location where it is consumed, or in other words, the distance food travels from farm to plate. Recent
studies have shown that this distance has been steadily increasing over the last fi fty years. Studies
estimate that processed food in the United States travels over 1,300 miles, and fresh produce travels
over 1,500 miles, before being consumed.
The plastic breaks down into such small bits that researchers can't strain it out of the
water, so it’s almost impossible to clean up. Birds and fish mistake it for food and the
plastic ends up in their stomachs. And that could end up in our stomachs, according to
biomedical researcher Bruce Blumberg of the University of California at Irvine
Some chemicals in the plastic, he says, can make their way into the tissue of the fish
we eat. The possible endocrine disruptors in plastic, he says, could be hazardous.
BLUMBERG: “Is ingesting plastic...
Analysis of the distribution of subject matter and library holdings represented in the
HathiTrust Digital Library and shared print repositories further confirmed that the digital
corpus is largely representative of the collective academic library collection, suggesting a
broad potential market for service.
Research or therapeutic cloning as it is often referred to
seeks to develop therapeutic remedies for degenerative
diseases. This research requires the use of stem cells. Both
embryonic and adult stem cells are being utilised in this
research. Results from the use of adult stem cells have
to date proved generally less favourable than those with
embryonic stem cells. There is a general consensus that
embryonic stem (ES) cells offer signiﬁ cantly more scientiﬁ c
chances of success than limiting research to adult cells.
A necessary caveat is that we consider a specific LSM, comparing it to a specific model of
internal queues. Other LSMs, perhaps associated with different settlement rules, may yield
different outcomes. For example, one could think of a system where all payments (even those
sent to the RTGS stream) are first passed through the LSM. Then, if LSM settlement does not
happen instantly because a cycle has not formed, the urgent RTGS payments are immediately
settled by transferring liquidity.
Americans have always cherished our privacy. From the birth of our republic, we assured ourselves protection against unlawful intrusion into our homes and our personal papers. At the same time, we set up a postal system to enable citizens all over the new nation to engage in commerce and political discourse. Soon after, Congress made it a crime to invade the privacy of the mails. And later we extended privacy protections to new modes of communications such as the telephone, the computer, and eventually email.
The term ‘aesthetic labour’ first appeared in 1999 from Dr Chris Warhurst and his team
at the University of Strathclyde. Attempts are made to link the concept of aesthetic labour with
the medieval Italian concept of sprezzatura. Also implicit, but not developed in this paper are
decisions around the allocation of training resources to favoured employees. A different
approach to ethics is introduced.
The topics discussed in chapter 1 are consumer behaviour and marketing strategy. This chapter highlights the different parent theories used in consumer behaviour. These are 3 fundamental questions we need to consider: Why study consumer behaviour? Why study consumer behaviour? How does it affect marketing strategy?
Chapter 2 - Situational influences. All behaviour takes place within the context of a certain situation. Therefore, behaviour will not only vary between consumers but the same consumer will exhibit different behaviours from one situation to the next. In this chapter, we will consider: The types of situational influence, the nature of situational influence, dimensions of situation, situational influences and marketing strategy.
Perception is the critical activity that links the individual consumer to group, situation and marketer influences. Thus, it is vital to understand how consumers process information, and the steps and factors involved. In this topic we will cover the following aspects: How consumers process information; different steps involved in information processing, factors that influence this process; implications of perception for retail, brand and communication strategies.
Marketers expend considerable effort to have consumers learn about their products. Therefore it is vital that we understand how consumers, and that includes us, learn. There are different types of learning, and in this chapter we will discuss the five types. The characteristics of learning are important, including aspects such as the strength of learning, reinforcing learning and the importance of brands.