Consumption and production

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  • In Istanbul we also committed ourselves to the goal of sustainable human settlements in an urbanising world by developing societies that will make efficient use of resources within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. In Norway - as in most industrialised countries – there is an increasing awareness of the importance of environmental protection. There are many examples of “good practices” and environmental sound conduct.

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  • The characteristic data, economic figures, general assessments and indications concerning all the properties are not guaranteed and cannot be used for calculations, computations or other operations to determine design, cost-effectiveness or profitability. Readers must verify the technical data and economic figures with their own suppliers of raw materials or parts, and other current technical and economic sources. Prototypes and tests under operating conditions are essential.

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  • The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992,1 provided the fundamental principles and the programme of action for achieving sustainable development. We strongly reaffirm our commitment to the Rio principles,2 the full implementation of Agenda 212 and the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 213.

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  • A clustering of the disease among close relatives has also been shown, although there is no consensus on which inheritable genetic defects are involved. In spite of extensive research, reliable findings on risk factors relating to lifestyle, diet or the environment remain elusive. Possible lifestyle risk factors are high intakes of α-linolenic acid (a polyunsaturated fatty acid in vegetables and dairy products) and calcium.

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  • Investing in infrastructure and innovation will be crucial for ensuring new sources of growth that better reflect the full value to economic activity to society. OECD analysis shows that greener growth can deliver important economic gains. These can be realised through enhanced resource productivity, reduced waste and energy consumption, and from ensuring that natural resources are priced to reflect their true value.

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  • Globally, GHG emissions rose by 70% between 1970 and 2004. The IPCC predicts rises of between 1° and 6°C from current levels by 2100, depending on the levels of future GHG emissions. If the higher estimates are accurate, there would be catastrophic consequences, so decisive action is a must. In March 2007, as part of a wide-ranging attempt to cut emissions, European heads of state agreed to set legally binding targets to reduce Europe-wide emissions of greenhouse gases by 20% of 1990 levels by 2020. This target may be increased to 30% by 2020 if a new global climate change agreement...

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  • The Climate Change Act 2008 set out targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) 2. At present it is estimated that 18-20% of GHGEs in the UK come from the food chain. In response to climate change, WWF-UK’s One Planet Food Programme (2009-12) set goals to reduce GHGEs from the consumption and production of food destined for the UK by at least 25% by 2020 and by 70% by 2050 (based on 1990 emission levels). This will require changes to both the supply side (food production) and the demand side (food consumption) within the food supply chain. As part of...

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  • The report also identifies water-related risks for electric power/energy, apparel, biotechnology/pharmaceutical, forest products and metals/mining firms. For companies in these and other sectors, climate change will further reduce the availability of reliable and high quality water, impacting productivity, costs, revenues, public goodwill and reputation. The report highlights the intensifying conflict between energy use and water availability. With increasing frequency, choosing one of these resources means undermining the other – the other, usually being water.

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  • Data on the adoption of three GGDP-generated maize technologies—modern varieties (MVs), fertilizer recommendations, and plant configuration recommendations—were collected through a national survey of maize growers conducted between November 1997 and March 1998. A three-stage, clustered, randomized procedure was used to select a representative sample of 420 maize farmers.

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  • One of the outstanding challenges for the European economy is sustainable production. Substantial developments are required in order to reduce Green House Gas (GHG) emissions. Although ME is not an energy intensive sector, it plays a major role in attaining political objectives. 29 Its engineering solutions are indispensable for a cleaner, healthier, safer and sustainable world. ME renders new energy sources accessible, enhances the cleanliness of existing forms of power generation and increases the efficiency of current and emerging technologies.

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  • According to Adam Smith, money originated in man’s rational effort to meet the necessity of finding some medium of exchange. Money is responsible for increasing the production and thus adds to the creation of wealth and also in accelerating consumption with the concomitant rise in the standard of living of the people.

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  • America’s dairy farmers participate in a national check-off program that provides monies to promote the consumption of dairy foods. A large portion of these funds is used to support nutrition research, communication, and education. Since 1915, the National Dairy Council® has been committed to establishing programs and developing educational materials based on current scientific research, as well as providing sound scientific information in all of its communications. This book is an update of the first edition of the Handbook of Dairy Foods and Nutrition.

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  • Today, the world faces many problems. The most important problem is the population explosion. The population of 2.8 billion around 1945 doubled during the following 50 years, and it will approximately double again, reaching 10 billion during the next 50 years. This population increase will produce serious effects on worldwide food consumption and distribution; however, a sharp production increase in agricultural products cannot be expected.

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  • The Recommendations refer to the marketing of products and services. They do not refer explicitly to the promotion of brands (as distinct from products and services); however, as certain brands and organizations are clearly associated with products or services whose marketing could fall within the scope of the Recommendations, efforts to restrict marketing in this area also need to consider how brands are marketed. Advertising is only one form of marketing among many, including sponsorship and product placement.

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  • In view of the dynamic growth in the luxury market and the availability of luxury goods to a wider range of consumers than ever before, the luxury market has transformed from its traditional conspicuous consumption model to a new experiential luxury sensibility marked by a change in the way consumers define luxury. In a global context, it is critically important for luxury researchers and marketers to understand why consumers buy luxury, what they believe luxury is and how their perception of luxury value impacts their buying behavior.

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  • In order to secure the energy supply to an increasing population and at the same time limit the damage to Earth, i.e. avoiding a fatal climate change as a result of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (primarily CO2), immediate action is necessary. This includes reducing the energy consumption, increasing the energy conversion efficiency, and using renewable energies. The transport sector is the one most dependent on fossil energy and it stands for a significant part of the energy consumption in the world.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 40. Diarrhea and Constipation DIARRHEA AND CONSTIPATION: INTRODUCTION Diarrhea and constipation are exceedingly common and together exact an enormous toll in terms of mortality, morbidity, social inconvenience, loss of work productivity, and consumption of medical resources. Worldwide, 1 billion individuals suffer one or more episodes of acute diarrhea each year.

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  • It is reported that the growth of furniture and home furnishing retailer sales value in the United States exceeded $100 billion in 2003, and kept increasing to $123 billion in 2007 (U.S. Census Bureau 2008). However, domestically produced furniture among these retailer sales has declined by more than $5 billion between 2000 and 2003. An increasing share of furniture imports from other countries, especially Asian countries, fills the gap between domestic consumption and production.

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  • THE principle of osmosis has been known as a means of water removal for some time. However, controlled application of osmotic treatments (OT) to food can be considered among the newest of improved techniques. Food products obtained for final consumption through OT are intermediate moisture products of improved quality, compared to conventionally dried materials. The treatment involves immersing foods in aqueous solutions of sufficiently high concentration at moderate temperatures.

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  • In 2008 the Cabinet Office published Food Matters: Towards a Strategy for the 21st Century (Cabinet Office 2008), which set out some of the concerns about current food consumption in the UK and its impact on health, and the economic, social and environmental sustainability of food production. It concluded that the current diet is not sustainable for either public health or the environment. In brief, the diet of the UK population is failing to meet dietary recommendations, with high intakes of saturated fat, sugar and salt, and low intakes of fruit and vegetables (Henderson et al.

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