Xem 1-20 trên 75 kết quả Consumption level
  • This note presents the neoclassical growth model in discrete time. The model is based on microfoundations, which means that the objectives of the economic agents are formulated explicitly, and that their behavior is derived by assuming that they always try to achieve their objectives as well as they can: employment and investment decisions by the firms are derived by assuming that firms maximize profits; consumption and saving decisions by the households are derived by assuming that households maximize their utility....

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  • As well as pioneering a new, broader definition of environmental goods and services, this report has  expanded the scope of analysis to include activities within the broader environmental supply chain as  well as activities across the full environmental value chain ‐  including R&D, design and development,  installation,  manufacturing,  supply,  distribution,  retail,  maintenance,  operations,  consultancy  and  support services.

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  • THE principle of osmosis has been known as a means of water removal for some time. However, controlled application of osmotic treatments (OT) to food can be considered among the newest of improved techniques. Food products obtained for final consumption through OT are intermediate moisture products of improved quality, compared to conventionally dried materials. The treatment involves immersing foods in aqueous solutions of sufficiently high concentration at moderate temperatures.

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  • Before working on consumption, WWF looked at the existing advice about food choices. We saw that this was already a very crowded area and we didn’t want to add to the maelstrom of information. We had already noticed that the environmental ’hotspots’ had much in common with the health ones. In an attempt to bring some of these messages together, we decided to look at current governmental eating advice – the Eatwell plate – and to see how it could be adapted to include the environment. The idea was to produce a definition of a sustainable diet that is nutritionally...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article A Precise High-Level Power Consumption Model for Embedded Systems Software

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  • The overall fragility of the marginal wine drinker segment is highlighted by the long-term trend among them for growing preferences of other forms of beverage alcohol over wine. In the 2003 Merrill Research study, only 50 percent of marginal wine drinkers stated that they actually preferred wine over beer and spirits. Marginal wine drinkers have trimmed their wine consumption levels overall in the past three years.

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  • In the short-run, however, substantial differences existed. During the First World War entertainment expenditure moved in opposite directions in France and Britain and remained stable in the US. During the great depression US real entertainment expenditure shrunk substantially, while European levels remained stable. The French expenditure level was substantially lower than in the other two countries, about a fifth in 1938 using exchange rates, although the difference is difficult to quantify because of devaluation of the franc and purchasing power parity issues.

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  • During the last few decades inordinate attention has been paid to the promotion of ‘healthy’ living. This has come from governmental, academic, commercial and popular sources. Few people today can be unaware of the espoused merits of such a lifestyle. Anyone who has visited a supermarket recently, turned on the television, listened to the radio or read a magazine must have noticed that awareness of health issues is growing. Health is clearly a topical issue at both political and cultural levels....

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  • Discriminatory policies and initiatives have contributed to growing inequalities between the rural and urban sector, and to the inability of the former to meet the needs and interests of rural women and men. In almost all developing countries, conditions of rural poor people are far worse than those of the urban poor in terms of consumption levels and access to education, health care, water, sanitation, housing, transport and communications. Mortality rates among children below five are much higher in rural areas. For example, in Bolivia, mortality rates are 1.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Estimation of Power Consumption at Behavioral Modeling Level Using SystemC

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  • Worldwide per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages in 2005 equaled 6.13 litres of pure alcohol consumed by every person aged 15 years or older. A large portion of this consumption – 28.6% or 1.76 litres per person – was homemade and illegally produced alcohol or, in other words, unrecorded alcohol. The consumption of homemade or illegally produced alcohol may be associated with an increased risk of harm because of unknown and potentially dangerous impurities or contaminants in these beverages. A large variation exists in adult per capita consumption (Figure 1).

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  • The premium price accruing to organic food prod- ucts directly impacts the consumption levels (Aryal et al. 2009). Instead the demand for organic products must be seen in relative proportion of income that is usually spent on food consumption (Tsakiridou et al. 2008). Furthermore, consumer behavior is a dynamic process because of con- tinuous changes in ideas, perceptions and activities of the consumers. Attitude is shaped selec- tively to compromise consumers needs. Learning is gained by experience and it affects consum- ers’ behavior.

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  • The effect is to leave the North with positive rates of genuine savings, and many resource-rich Southern countries with negative or near-zero rates. This distracts attention from analysis of the ‘environmental space’ occupied by economies with strong, traditionally-defined economic growth — and excessive consumption of the world’s resources. 23 Many people argue that reducing Northern consumption levels is central to curbing excessive resource depletion and pollution and reducing global inequalities in energy use and other forms of consumption.

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  • An alternative conception of consumer choice has recently gained the attention of economists, which allows for two closely related departures from the standard model. First, consumers may have dynamically inconsistent preferences. Second, as a rational response to this dynamic inconsistency, the consumer may use external commitment devices or personal rules in an attempt to limit overspending. We use data from a large, representative sample of households in the UK to test the relevance of these twin predictions in the field.

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  • This report presents a methodology for calculating such impacts. To illustrate the magnitude of potential impacts, two alternative scenarios are outlined for long- term US public transportation investment; a “base case” scenario that maintains long-term public transportation ridership trends, and a “higher transit investment” scenario that adds investment each year over the 2010-2030 period. The analysis estimates how travel times and costs, including effects of changes in congestion levels and mode switching, differs among the scenarios.

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  • Over the longer run, the U.S. economy is likely to see an important rebalancing of our spending and production. Higher household saving rates imply that eventually other types of spending will need to fill the breach in aggregate demand. The most likely candidates are net exports and business fixed investment. For the past several years, low personal savings and substantial budget deficits have led to large inflows of foreign capital and large trade deficits. As we move to more sustainable levels of consumption and increased fiscal responsibility, capital inflows will...

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  • Globally, GHG emissions rose by 70% between 1970 and 2004. The IPCC predicts rises of between 1° and 6°C from current levels by 2100, depending on the levels of future GHG emissions. If the higher estimates are accurate, there would be catastrophic consequences, so decisive action is a must. In March 2007, as part of a wide-ranging attempt to cut emissions, European heads of state agreed to set legally binding targets to reduce Europe-wide emissions of greenhouse gases by 20% of 1990 levels by 2020. This target may be increased to 30% by 2020 if a new global climate change agreement...

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  • The Large Volume Organic Chemicals (LVOC) BREF (Best Available Techniques reference document) reflects an information exchange carried out under Article 16(2) of Council Directive 96/61/EC. This Executive Summary - which is intended to be read in conjunction with both the standard introduction to the BAT chapters and the BREF Preface’s explanations of objectives, usage and legal terms - describes the main findings, the principal BAT conclusions and the associated emission / consumption levels.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: "Alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration level and guideline compliance in hospital referred patients with minimal, mild and moderate head injuries

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  • Commonly, high overall consumption levels (see Table 1) are found in countries such as the Russian Federation, which display both high beer and high spirits consumption (country data not shown here). As highlighted in Table 3, the consumption of wine as a percentage of total recorded alcohol is globally quite low (8.6%), with signifi cant levels of alcohol consumed in the form of wine in the European Region (EUR at 26.4% of recorded APC) and the Region of the Americas (12.0% of recorded APC). Beverages other than beer, spirits and wine (e.g. fortifi ed wines, rice wine or...

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