This book is designed to revise and consolidate grammar points at the level of Council
of Europe Framework (CEF)Bl and B2. It assumes that some basic points have been
covered. These can be practised in Macmillan English Grammar In Context Essential.
The practice material includes a wide range of topics to reflect both everyday language
use and the kinds of subjects learners might be studying in schools or colleges.
1000 Phrasal Verbs in Context is designed to help intermediate to advanced learners of English improve their knowledge of phrasal verbs. It can be used as a self-study guide by learners, or the material can be used by teachers in their EFL /ESL classes. The book presents over 1,000 phrasal verbs in alphabetical order. The first section has phrasal verbs beginning with the letter ‘a’, followed by a set of quiz questions that test them. The second section has phrasal verbs beginning with the letter ‘b’, followed by another set of quiz questions, and so on.
Thủ thuật này chỉ cho bạn cách tạo một Context Menu khi kích chuột phải vào trang word để thay đổi nhanh chóng chữ hoa/chữ thường, Hightlight, số mũ,... trên văn bản được chọn. Giống hình sau khi bạn click chuột phải vào trang word. Trong trường hợp này tôi sẽ hướng dẩn các bạn tạo một Shortcut trên menu cho việc chuyển đổi chữ hoa sang chữ thường và ngược lại. Các trường hợp tạo shortcut khác đều làm tương tự.
Vocabulary in Context was written especially for you. The program was designed to enrich your personal word bank with many hundreds of high-frequency and challenging words. This book presents topic-related readings with key terms in context. Follow-up exercises provide a wide variety of practice activities to help you unlock the meanings of unfamiliar words. These strategies include the study of synonyms and antonyms; grammatical word forms; word roots, prefixes, and suffixes; connotations; and the efficient use of a dictionary and thesaurus.
Vocabulary in Context series. The reproducible lessons in this series focus on practical vocabulary terms, skills, and concepts in relevant situational settings. Struggling students learn over 3,000 high-utility words in 28 self-contained thematic lessons. Additionally, each lesson activates prior knowledge and continually reinforces fundamental language arts skills and concepts. These reproducible books include teacher notes and tips, answer keys, reference guides, lessons, unit reviews, and more. Inviting you to refer to part 2 of ebook.
Applied WPF 4 in Context sets the standard for leveraging the latest Windows user interface technology in your business applications.
Using this book, you'll learn how to implement world-class Windows Professional Foundation (WPF) solutions in a real-world line of business applications, developing the code from the ground up, and understand how to apply best development practices and related .NET products and technologies to your solutions.
THE RELATIONSHIP OF CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFRECES TO THE VALUES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS PROFESTIONAL WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT For each
(δ , J) combination, I estimated a regression of μ j on x j analogous to those estimated
from actual data in Section 1.5, pooling all 5,000 simulated markets and including a fixed
effect for each. The resulting estimates of ( ) ( ) ( ) θ δ , J = cov x j ,μ j var x j are displayed in
Figure 1.3. The trends identified in Figures 1.1 and 1.2 are again clear. First,...
We consider the problem of learning context-dependent mappings from sentences to logical form. The training examples are sequences of sentences annotated with lambda-calculus meaning representations. We develop an algorithm that maintains explicit, lambda-calculus representations of salient discourse entities and uses a context-dependent analysis pipeline to recover logical forms. The method uses a hidden-variable variant of the perception algorithm to learn a linear model used to select the best analysis.
We discuss some of the practical issues that arise from decoding with general synchronous context-free grammars. We examine problems caused by unary rules and we also examine how virtual nonterminals resulting from binarization can best be handled. We also investigate adding more ﬂexibility to synchronous context-free grammars by adding glue rules and phrases.
We present a novel pruning method for context-free parsing that increases efﬁciency by disallowing phrase-level unary productions in CKY chart cells spanning a single word. Our work is orthogonal to recent work on “closing” chart cells, which has focused on multi-word constituents, leaving span-1 chart cells unpruned. We show that a simple discriminative classiﬁer can learn with high accuracy which span-1 chart cells to close to phrase-level unary productions.
Linear context-free rewriting systems (LCFRSs) are grammar formalisms with the capability of modeling discontinuous constituents. Many applications use LCFRSs where the fan-out (a measure of the discontinuity of phrases) is not allowed to be greater than 2. We present an efﬁcient algorithm for transforming LCFRS with fan-out at most 2 into a binary form, whenever this is possible. This results in asymptotical run-time improvement for known parsing algorithms for this class.
This paper describes a spelling correction system that functions as part of an intelligent tutor that carries on a natural language dialogue with its users. The process that searches the lexicon is adaptive as is the system filter, to speed up the process. The basis of our approach is the interaction between the parser and the spelling corrector. Alternative correction targets are fed back to the parser, which does a series of syntactic and semantic checks, based on the dialogue context, the sentence context, and the phrase context. phrases that are used in the correction process. ...
In this paper we discuss the use of discourse context in spoken dialogue systems and argue that the knowledge of the domain, modelled with the help of dialogue topics is important in maintaining robustness of the system and improving recognition accuracy of spoken utterances. We propose a topic model which consists of a domain model, structured into a topic tree, and the Predict-Support algorithm which assigns topics to utterances on the basis of the topic transitions described in the topic tree and the words recognized in the input utterance. ...
In this paper we present Morphy, an integrated tool for German morphology, part-ofspeech tagging and context-sensitive lemmatization. Its large lexicon of more than 320,000 word forms plus its ability to process German compound nouns guarantee a wide morphological coverage. Syntactic ambiguities can be resolved with a standard statistical part-of-speech tagger. By using the output of the tagger, the lemmatizer can determine the correct root even for ambiguous word forms. The complete package is freely available and can be downloaded from the World Wide Web. ...
Others, including earlier versions of our system, bury discourse functions inside other modules, such as natural language interpretation or the back-end interface. An innovation of this work is the compartmentalization of discourse processing into three generically definable components--Dialogue Management, Context Tracking, and Pragmatic Adaptation (described in Section 1 below)--and the software control structure for interaction between these and other components of a spoken dialogue system (Section 2).
This paper presents a multi-neuro tagger that uses variable lengths of contexts and weighted inputs (with information gains) for part of speech tagging. Computer experiments show that it has a correct rate of over 94% for tagging ambiguous words when a small Thai corpus with 22,311 ambiguous words is used for training. This result is better than any of the results obtained using the single-neuro taggers with fixed but different lengths of contexts, which indicates that the multi-neuro tagger can dynamically find a suitable length of contexts in tagging. ...
Weighted context-free grammars are a convenient formalism for representing grammatical constructions and their likelihoods in a variety of language-processing applications. In particular, speech understanding applications require appropriate grammars both to constrain speech recognition and to help extract the meaning of utterances. In many of those applications, the actual languages described are regular, but context-free representations are much more concise and easier to create.
Machine learning has become the dominant approach to building natural-language processing systems. However, current approaches generally require a great deal of laboriously constructed humanannotated training data. Ideally, a computer would be able to acquire language like a child by being exposed to linguistic input in the context of a relevant but ambiguous perceptual environment.
Linear Context-Free Rewriting Systems (LCFRSs) are a grammar formalism capable of modeling discontinuous phrases. Many parsing applications use LCFRSs where the fan-out (a measure of the discontinuity of phrases) does not exceed 2. We present an efﬁcient algorithm for optimal reduction of the length of production right-hand side in LCFRSs with fan-out at most 2. This results in asymptotical running time improvement for known parsing algorithms for this class.