Chapter 4 - Describing data: Displaying and exploring data. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Construct and interpret a dot plot, identify and compute measures of position, construct and analyze a box plot, compute and describe the coefficient of skewness, create and interpret a scatter diagram, develop and explain a contingency table.
We present measures of board structure for the restating and control samples
in panel B of Table 5. The two groups of firms have similar board
structures. The median board size for restating (control) firms is 7 (8) members.
The median proportion of independent directors (PID) is about 71
percent in each sample. About 5 percent of the independent directors hold
5 percent or larger blocks of equity (PID5) in both groups. One striking
difference between the two groups is in the incidence of an independent
director with financial expertise (IDFE).
A descriptive analysis by frequency counting, central trends measures and dispersion was
made for those continuous type variables, as some of the variables inherent to laborers, and
environmental and biological measurements. Continuous variables were transformed to
normalize them. We also explored possible relationships between some variables and they
were crossed by constructing contingency tables. We used the Student's t tests and chi
square tests for the comparison of quantitative and categorical variables.
A review of the regulatory framework can also provide some indication of the level of
competition within a country’s banking system. Other things being equal, competition should
be greater when regulatory barriers to entry and exit is low, encouraging new entrants. The
regulatory framework for the EAC region, summarized in Table 1, suggests a relatively open
regime with similar conditions of entry and prudential treatment for all types of banks across
Chapter 4 - Describing data: Displaying and exploring data. When you have completed this chapter, you will be able to: Develop and interpret a dot plot; develop and interpret a stem-and-leaf display; compute and understand quartiles, deciles, and percentiles; construct and interpret box plots; compute and understand the coefficient of skewness; draw and interpret a scatter diagram; construct and interpret a contingency table.