Understanding the forces that influence natural variation within and among populations
has been a major objective of evolutionary biology for decades (Csilléry et al., 2010). It can
be problematic, as natural populations may have complex demographic histories: size and
range changes over time can lead to bottlenecks, fusions and expansions that leave
signatures on the genetic composition of the population (Avise, 2004). Detection and
analysis of genetic diversity can help us to understand the molecular basis of various
biological phenomena in these natural systems.
There are strong interdependencies between
banks and governments, through both balance
sheet and contingent claim exposures. These
interdependencies mutually reinforce the
macroeconomic propagation of banking or
sovereign market tensions. Second, given the
fragmentation of some market segments and the
setback to European banking sector integration,
persistent cross-country heterogeneity needs to
be considered. Third, a proper assessment of
ﬁ nancing conditions hinges on the distinction
between demand and supply-side factors in
These research teams study for example the impact and mechanisms of greenhouse
gas emissions and atmospheric pollutant on climate, ozone depletion and carbon sinks
(oceans and inland waters, forests and soil). They do research to understand the
mechanisms and assess the impact of global change on the water cycle, water quality
and availability, as well as soil functions and quality to provide the bases for
management tools for sustainable water systems. Biodiversity and ecosystems are
analysed to understand and minimise the negative impacts of human activities.
When planning how to reduce the threat of global warming and how to adapt to it, a
very important piece of information is how intense the change will be. That implies
estimating the trends of future concentrations of greenhouse gasses, and the potential
future changes in temperature, precipitation, storm events and other climatic
variables. These predictions are important not only to estimate the magnitude of the
changes, but also to determine the uncertainty surrounding them.
We present measures of board structure for the restating and control samples
in panel B of Table 5. The two groups of firms have similar board
structures. The median board size for restating (control) firms is 7 (8) members.
The median proportion of independent directors (PID) is about 71
percent in each sample. About 5 percent of the independent directors hold
5 percent or larger blocks of equity (PID5) in both groups. One striking
difference between the two groups is in the incidence of an independent
director with financial expertise (IDFE).
Messaging systems based on queuing include products such as Microsoft’s MSMQ and
IBM’s MQSeries . The queuing model with their store-and-forward mechanisms come into
play where the sender of the message expects someone to handle the message while imposing
asynchronous communication and guaranteed delivery constraints. A widely used standard
in messaging is the Message Passing Interface Standard (MPI) . MPI is designed for
high performance on both massively parallel machines and workstation clusters.
In gravity injection, small volumes of reagents are gravity-fed into injection
well(s) over a longer application period. The distribution and dissipation of the
reagents in the saturated zone is largely controlled by the site hydrogeologic
conditions. The gravity injection approach may reduce some of risks associated
with chemical oxidation technologies. Additionally, given its prolonged
application period, the oxidants may be able to penetrate into more of the lower
permeability soils to address contaminants in these areas.
The world economy consists of two countries, denominated home and foreign. Each country
is populated by a continuum of identical households, ¯rms, and a monetary authority. House-
holds consume two types of ¯nal goods, a tradable good T and a nontraded good N. The
production of nontraded goods requires capital and labor, and the production of tradable
consumption goods requires the use of home and foreign traded inputs as well as nontraded
Throughout this paper, we consider a valuation method for contingent claims
taking control of shortfall risk into account in the framework of complete
market models. After giving a general form of the valuation, we shall deal
with models whose underlying assets are described by diffusion processes,
and obtain a result for American type claims.
There are potential threats to the sustainability of handwash-
ing with soap promotion in Peru, including the upcoming
turnover of political and technical officials throughout the
country (local officials will change in early 2011 and a new
president will be elected later in the year). There is also an
ongoing high turnover of teachers and, to a lesser extent, of
I have already pointed out that there are two basic sets of capitalization tools: (1) direct
capitalization and (2) yield analysis.
Tool Kit #2 Direct Capitalization focuses on the income stream from a property, without taking
into account appreciation in value, paying down of mortgages, or ultimate value on disposition.
In this regard it differs from yield analysis (Tool Kit #3 Discounted Cash Flows), as most yield
calculations take into account the cash flow during the hold period plus the cash flow from the
ultimate disposition of the property (see below).
Economic reforms implemented since the formation of the GPA have borne positive results for the economy. Real GDP grew by about 6% in 2009 and is estimated to have risen strongly to about 9.0% in 2010, reflecting strong performances in mining (47% growth) due to rising mineral and metal prices and higher agricultural output arising from higher output of tobacco, sugar, maize and cotton. Increases in agricultural output (34% growth) have historically supported manufacturing sector production (Box 1).
There was a movement out of US sovereign bonds, amid net outflows of €2.1 billion and
negative revaluations of €3 billion, to close at €45 billion, or 5 per cent of all investments.
These negative US revaluations in euro terms were partly driven by the euro depreciating by
2.8 per cent relative to the US dollar over Q1 2012. German government bonds experienced
positive net inflows of €0.9 billion and account for €17.4 billion of bond assets, but holdings
still remain low relative to UK and US government bond assets. Holdings of Spanish
On a regional average, in countries that witnessed uprisings or popular movements - there are slight gender differences
between men’s and women’s uses of social media during the “Arab spring” according to the survey respondents.
While the top two uses of social media were for the purpose of raising awareness and spreading information about the
events related to uprisings and revolutions, a slightly larger percentage of men than women used social media for these
In order to support building engineering physicists in practice, we must
develop new centres in universities and new funding mechanisms to support
original and applied research into building energy performance. The
dissemination of real world building performance information capable of being
benchmarked, rather than marketing misinformation will not just inform future
low carbon building designs, but also allow for the development of robust
Looking at a recent Cairns Group proposal on domestic support it can be seen that they want to
strengthen the Green Box provision dealing with direct payments (including structural adjustment,
environment and regional assistance) while capping overall spending on direct payments under the
Green Box. As well, they hope to subject certain support sub-categories in the Box to reduction
commitments. The Cairns Group paper further proposes to strengthen transparency, notification
and review mechanisms to ensure programs meet the criteria set out in the Green Box.
In a simple world of full Ricardian Equivalence, households increase their savings by the
present value of future taxes needed to repay government debt. Their desired bond holdings
thus rise by the exact increase in government debt issuance. Private consumption declines
to offset the increase in public expenditure, leaving GDP unchanged. The long-term interest
rate therefore remains constant.
In this stylised view, changes of the government debt/GDP
ratio should not affect the future path of interest rates, nominal or real, in any way at all.
The Blacksmith Institute’s database contains almost 350 sites contaminated with mercury, putting close to
10 million people at risk from the identified sites. It is the second most prevalent pollutant in the database.
The top sources of mercury pollution are artisanal gold processing, mining and ore processing, coal mining,
processing and localized air pollution related to coal combustion at poorly controlled sites, and chemical
manufacturing, notably for older chlor-alkali plants making chlorine.
Artisanal mining of gold ores and processing using mercury is common worldwide.
Pablo Picasso’s first piece titled Head of a Woman was slightly larger
than one foot high and later served as the inspiration for the monumen-
tal sculpture at Princeton. This earlier work was
constructed of cutout and folded sheet metal that was painted.
Carl Nesjar, a Norwegian artist, agreed to serve as intermediary with
Picasso in the negotiations that would lead to the acquisition of a major
sculpture for the Putnam Memorial Collection.
Extent of knowledge sharing: Related to the above problem is the question of how much knowledge is available
to the system during its query optimization process. In particular, the ﬁrst step in choosing a query evaluation strategy
is likely to be identifying which nodes have materialized views that can speed query processing. A simple technique
would be to use a centralized catalog of all available views and their locations, analogous to the central directory used
by Napster. Yet this model introduces a single point of failure and a potential scalability bottleneck.