Studies assessing rating scales are very common in psychology and related ﬁelds, but are rare in NLP. In this paper we assess discrete and continuous scales used for measuring quality assessments of computergenerated language. We conducted six separate experiments designed to investigate the validity, reliability, stability, interchangeability and sensitivity of discrete vs. continuous scales. We show that continuous scales are viable for use in language evaluation, and offer distinct advantages over discrete scales. ...
The second edition of Safety Evaluation of Medical Devices continues to focus
on the objective of the first edition—to serve as a single-volume practical guide
for those who are responsible for or concerned with ensuring safety in the use
and manufacture of medical devices. It benefits from recognition of the limitations
and shortcomings of the previous edition, and also reflects the changes in
regulations, science, and the marketplace.
Partial evaluation technology continues to grow and mature. ACM SIGPLANsponsored
conferences and workshops have provided a forum for researchers to
share current results and directions of work. Partial evaluation techniques are
being used in commercially available compilers (for example the Chez Scheme
system). They are also being used in industrial scheduling systems (see Augustsson's
article in this volume), they have been incorporated into popular
commercial products (see Singh's article in this volume), and they are the basis
of methodologies for implementing domain-specific languages....
Cimate change is one of the most important global environmental
problems facing the world today. Evidence of a
changing climate is all around us, from rising sea level to
retreating mountain glaciers, melting Arctic sea ice, lengthening
growing seasons, shifting animal migration patterns, and other
changes. Such changes are already having adverse impacts on people’s
well-being, as climate change amplifies the effects of other
environmental and socioeconomic changes and problems and produces
new effects of its own.
Classes of Users of database query systems V Familiar with the database and its software IV Familiar with the database and the interaction language Ill Familiar with the contents of database II Familiar with the domain of application I Passing knowledge of the domain of application Of course, as users gain experience with a system, they will continually attempt to adapt to its quirks. If the purpose of the evaluation is to demonstrate that the natural language understanding system is merely useable, adaptation resents no problem. ...
IV Familiar with the database and the interaction language Ill Familiar with the contents of database II Familiar with the domain of application I Passing knowledge of the domain of application Of course, as users gain experience with a system, they will continually attempt to adapt to its quirks. If the purpose of the evaluation is to demonstrate that the natural language understanding system is merely useable.
The field of marketing communications is ever-changing. Brand managers continually
attempt to gain advantage over competitors and endeavor to achieve larger
market shares and profits for the brands they manage. Marketing communications,
or marcom, is just one element of the marketing mix, but advertising, promotions,
marketing-oriented public relations, and other marcom tools perform
increasingly important roles in firms’ quests to achieve financial and nonfinancial
We must be daring and search after Truth; even if we do not succeed in finding her, we shall at least come closer than we are at present (Galen AD 130-200)
SYNOPSIS (CONTINUED) Surveillance studies and the reporting of spontaneous adverse reactions respectively determine the clinical profile of the drug and detect rare adverse events. Further trials to compare new medicines with existing medicines are also required.These form the basis of cost-effectiveness comparisons.
Software Testing and Continuous Quality Improvement, Second Edition, illustrates a quality framework for software testing in traditional structured and unstructured environments. Section I reviews modern QA principles and best practices. Section II examines the waterfall development methodology. The next section contrasts waterfall development methodology with the rapid application spiral environment. Section IV discusses fundamental challenges of maintaining and improving existing systems.
After more than a decade of working with various revisions and editions of this book, I
am amazed at the uniform spirit of goodwill and cooperation given me by many
people. Without that spirit, this book would not have seen the light of day or continued
helping people. My first editor, Ralph “Jake” Warner, showed infinite patience in
working with a first-time author. My second editor, Lisa Goldoftas, challenged every
punctuation mark and sentence structure while gracefully deferring to my knowledge
about the subject.
The mere thought of having to take a required calculus
course is enough to make legions of students break out in
a cold sweat. Others who have no intention of ever studying
the subject have this notion that calculus is impossibly difficult
unless you happen to be a direct descendant of Einstein.
Well, I’m here to tell you that you can master calculus. It’s not
nearly as tough as its mystique would lead you to think. Much
of calculus is really just very advanced algebra, geometry, and
trig. It builds upon and is a logical extension of those subjects.
Remarkable advances in medical diagnostic imaging have been made during the past
few decades. The development of new imaging techniques and continuous
improvements in the display of digital images have opened new horizons in the study
of brain anatomy and pathology. The field of brain imaging has now become a fast-
moving, demanding, and exciting multidisciplinary activity. I hope that this textbook
will be useful to students and clinicians in the field of neuroscience, in understanding
the fundamentals of advances in brain imaging.
'People skills' are now recognised as being THE single most important factor for success in business. Managing Yourself is a practical, easily absorbed and implemented guide to the assessment and then continuous personal improvement of your emotional intelligence. It provides the reader with easily understood and workable models of how they think, feel, relate to others and perform in the workplace. Often your emotions hold you back or deflect you off course. This book shows you how to master your emotions and get the results you deserve.
As our understanding of the disease processes and the biomechanics of the hip joint and
bony pelvis improves, there is a need to continuously update radiologists, orthopaedic
surgeons and other professionals working in this fi eld. This book, in common with several
others published in this series, takes a dual approach to the subject.
The fi rst section acquaints the reader with the full range of techniques available for
imaging the hip joint and musculoskeletal pelvic pathology, emphasizing the indications
Supervisors, managers and their co-workers seemed to be attending an
awful lot of training courses, but this didn’t seem to have the impact on ‘onthe-
job’ performance that it needed to have. In fact many managers were
disillusioned with much of the training and development activity going on.
At the time, most training programmes suffered from a lack of measurable,
clearly specified outcomes and measured results. Most training programmes
were evaluated on the ‘Did you enjoy it?’ measure, or people sat for a threehour
As SUNY New Paltz administrators strive to achieve the college’s mission and goals and to
provide accountability for their operations, they need to continually assess and evaluate their
internal control structure to assure that it is well designed and operating effectively,
appropriately updated to meet changing conditions, and provides reasonable assurance that
the objectives of the department are being achieved.
many groups and individuals have been motivated to consider the potential for producing ethanol. Across the
country, farmer cooperatives, rural development coalitions, bio-energy advocates and others have gathered to
explore the process and prospects for developing ethanol production facilities. In many cases these efforts have
resulted in the successful development of ethanol plants.
More importantly, while most of the theoretical models which we use to evaluate
mutual fund performance are based on the assumption of efficient markets, emerging markets
fail to meet these assumptions. Returns in emerging markets suffer from several chronic
conditions such as high volatility, high trading cost, non-normality, and infrequent trading
(Bekaert and Harvey, 2002). Furthermore, there is still some doubt whether the factors
documented in developed markets can also explain stock returns in emerging markets (for
example, Claessens et al.
Mathematical Finance is themathematical theory of financialmarkets.
It tries to develop theoretical models, that can be used by “practitioners”
to evaluate certain data from “real” financial markets. A model
cannot be “right” or wrong, it can only be good or bad ( for practical use
). Even “bad” models can be “good” for theoretical insight.