The third PASCAL Recognizing Textual Entailment Challenge (RTE-3) contained an optional task that extended the main entailment task by requiring a system to make three-way entailment decisions (entails, contradicts, neither) and to justify its response. Contradiction was rare in the RTE-3 test set, occurring in only about 10% of the cases, and systems found accurately detecting it difﬁcult.
Detecting conﬂicting statements is a foundational text understanding task with applications in information analysis. We propose an appropriate deﬁnition of contradiction for NLP tasks and develop available corpora, from which we construct a typology of contradictions. We demonstrate that a system for contradiction needs to make more ﬁne-grained distinctions than the common systems for entailment. In particular, we argue for the centrality of event coreference and therefore incorporate such a component based on topicality.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: If the data contradict the theory, throw out the data: Nicotine addiction in the 2010 report of the Surgeon General
This is a book for readers who cannot read. They may sound rude, though I do not mean to be. It may sound like a contradiction, but it is not. The appearance of rudeness and contradiction arises only from the variety of senses in which the word "reading" can be used.
Tài liệu sinh học tiếng Anh:
The theory of evolution has been around for some 150 years, and has deeply influenced people's
views of the world. The theory maintains that life came about by chance, by itself, and through natural conditions.
However, evolution is not supported by any scientific evidence. It is a dogma that materialist scientists and philosophers are trying to impose on society under a scientific mask.
How To Read A Book .This is a book for readers who cannot read. They may sound rude, though I do not mean to be. It may sound like a contradiction, but it is not. The appearance of rudeness and contradiction arises only from the variety of senses in which the word "reading" can be used.
In this thesis we explore how knowledge management is performed in
open source projects. Open source projects are often perceived as informal,
even unmanaged. Still, they appear to manage knowledge acquisition
and sharing sufficiently well to successfully develop software in such
a distributed environment as the Internet. This thesis aims to explore
that apparent contradiction, and thus complement the currently limited
research in this field.
It's as simple as that. What you say you want means
almost nothing. When every action you make contradicts
your words, your words don't mean a damn thing!
This may be a new idea for you, or not. It doesn't
matter! Aligning our intentions with our actions is something
we can all learn to do better. It is the key to unlock
your potential, get out of debt, and get ahead in life. It
is something you can learn, but in exchange you have to
give something up.
Synthetic polymers are essential for modern human life, since they are
used in industrial and agricultural fields. However, most synthetic polymers
that have been developed by using petroleum and coal as raw materials are
not compatible with the environment, since they cannot be included in the
natural recycling system. There are serious contradictions between the
convenience that people require today and compatibility with the natural
environment. It is easy to say that we should use only natural materials in
order to solve the problems coming from man-made materials.
Superstition is a belief in supernatural
causality: that one event leads to the cause
of another without any physical process
linking the two events, such as astrology,
omens, witchcraft, etc., that contradicts
natural sciencen.In the same manner life is influenced by the belief in
superstitions. Whether people are conscious of it or not,
faith in superstitions is invisibly present in their behavior and
decisions. Either way, one thing is for certain, superstitions
do have quite a significant power over us....
It’s rare that someone should develop an obsession with Wall Street with
out sharing its driving passion, the accumulation of money. It would prob
ably take years of psychoanalysis to untangle that contradiction, not to
mention others too sensitive to name here.
No doubt that contradictory obsession has early roots, but its most po
tent adult influence was probably my first job out of college, at a small
brokerage firm in downtown Manhattan.
In early literature about the performance of telecommunication systems, traf®c was generally modeled as memoryless Poisson streams of packets. In these models the packet arrival processes show no time interdependence. Recent measurements on Web traf®c show that this hypothesis is wrong and that Web traf®c actually experiences what we now call long-term dependence. Long-term dependence is interesting not only because it contradicts Poisson's law, but also because it signi®cantly impacts the performance of networks....
Against expectations that the turn away fromstate socialismwould initiate
aturnaway from Marxist thought, recent years have seen a resurgence of
interest inMarxism and its reassessment by a new generation of theorists.
This book pursues that interest with speciﬁc reference to international law.
It presents a sustained and ground-breaking exploration of the pertinence
of Marxist ideas, concepts and analytical practices for international legal
enquiry from a range of angles.
Standard economic theory argues that international private capital flows will make a major contribution to development to the extent that they will flow from capital-abundant industrialized countries to capital-scarce developing countries, and help to smooth spending throughout the business cycle in capital-recipient countries. In recent years, reality has contradicted both aspects of this standard theory. For the last seven years, developing countries have transferred large amount of resources to developed countries.
In recent years the concept of intelligent multi-mode, multimedia transceivers (IMMT) has emerged in the context of wireless systems [l-61. The range of various existing solutions that have found favour in already operational standard systems was summarised in the excellent overview by Nanda et al. .
In fact, as in many recent publications in mathematics educa-
tion, much of what is described . . . reﬂects two movements, “sit-
uated learning” and “constructivism”, which have been gaining
inﬂuence on thinking about education and educational research.
In our view, some of the central educational recommendations
of these movements have questionable psychological foundations.
The creation of quick jobs, as opposed to training, often results in the
creation of too many bricklayers, often of not very good caliber. So
that when the fund goes, people are no more able to get a good job
Sometimes there is a contradiction between building quality projects
and using local labor, because when asked, municipalities often want
quality projects. And yet bilateral and multilateral agencies say they want
local labor to be employed.
Finally, there are some environmental issues.
We show that every smooth toric variety (and many other algebraic spaces as well) can be realized as a moduli space for smooth, projective, polarized varieties. Some of these are not quasi-projective. This contradicts a recent paper (Quasi-projectivity of moduli spaces of polarized varieties, Ann. of Math. 159 (2004) 597–639.). A polarized variety is a pair (X, H) consisting of a smooth projective variety X and a linear equivalence class of ample divisors H on X. For simplicity, we look at the case when X is smooth, numerical and linear equivalence coincide for divisors on X, H is very...