Thermal processing of foods in one form or the other has been in
place since the 1900s. Although the fundamental principles remain
the same, there have been numerous improvements in the control
and automation of thermal processes. The various chapters in this
book provide an insight into the details of the control and automation
processes and details involved for different thermal processes.
Horizontal Gaze Descending cortical inputs mediating horizontal gaze ultimately converge at the level of the pons. Neurons in the paramedian pontine reticular formation are responsible for controlling conjugate gaze toward the same side. They project directly to the ipsilateral abducens nucleus. A lesion of either the paramedian pontine reticular formation or the abducens nucleus causes an ipsilateral conjugate gaze palsy.
Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy: Treatment Pregnancy complicated by diabetes mellitus is associated with higher maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality rates. Preconception counseling and treatment are important for the diabetic patient contemplating pregnancy and can reduce the risk of congenital malformations and improve pregnancy outcome. Folate supplementation reduces the incidence of fetal neural tube defects, which occur with greater frequency in fetuses of diabetic mothers.
Role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the etiology of amenorrhea. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus stimulates follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from the pituitary to induce ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Ovarian secretion of estradiol and progesterone controls the shedding of the endometrium, resulting in menses and, in combination with the inhibins, provides feedback regulation of the hypothalamus and pituitary to control secretion of FSH and LH.
Recurrent episodes of binge eating, which is characterized by the consumption of a large amount of food in a short period of time and a feeling that the eating is out of control.
Recurrent inappropriate behavior to compensate for the binge eating, such as self-induced vomiting.
The occurrence of both the binge eating and the inappropriate compensatory behavior at least twice weekly, on average, for 3 months.
Overconcern with body shape and weight.
Factor XI Deficiency: Treatment The treatment of FXI deficiency is based on the infusion of FFP at doses of 15–20 mL/kg to maintain trough levels ranging from 10 to 20%. Because FXI has a half-life of 40–70 h, the replacement therapy can be given on alternate days. The use of antifibrinolytic drugs is beneficial to control bleeds, with the exception of hematuria or bleeds in the bladder. The development of a FXI inhibitor was observed in 10% of severely FXI-deficient patients who received replacement therapy.
Insomnia Associated with Neurologic Disorders
A variety of neurologic diseases result in sleep disruption through both indirect, nonspecific mechanisms (e.g., pain in cervical spondylosis or low back pain) or by impairment of central neural structures involved in the generation and control of sleep itself. For example, dementia from any cause has long been associated with disturbances in the timing of the sleep-wake cycle, often characterized by nocturnal wandering and an exacerbation of symptomatology at night (so-called sundowning).
Erratic eating is one of the manifestations of mental disorders. Patients can not eat or drink, or eating too much can not be controlled.For mental health care possible, it is important to reserve the disease, early detection and treatment of disorders to prevent complications, and rehabilitation for patients with community reintegration. However, psychiatric symptoms were relatively discreet, sometimes hard to distinguish from the normal operation
Independent research on a health issue is often the first
step to complement discussions with a physician. But
locating accurate, well-organized, understandable medical
information can be a challenge. A simple Internet search
on terms such as “cancer” or “diabetes,” for example, returns
an intimidating number of results. Sifting through the
results can be daunting, particularly when some of the information
is inconsistent or even contradictory.
Newborn and infant mortality has been a plague of public health for centuries.
However, during the 1900s, an extraordinary effort began to correct this
disgraceful situation. Especially remarkable have been the accomplishments of
the last 30 years or so. Although many challenges remain, very noticeable
progress has been made relative to some specific causes of death in babies.
In the United States, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) was
one of the main causes of death in premature newborns.
Since the late 1990s, the volume of research on gender issues in mental
health has grown significantly. One important point that the gender literature
has demonstrated, in addition to clarifying how women’s health
differs from that of men’s, is how little we actually know about men’s
mental health concerns. Although the great body of research in mental
health has historically been based on men, until recently the research has
largely failed to address how male gender integrally influences the clinical
presentation and treatment of various disorders.
Obesity and its associated disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular
disease, have now reached epidemic proportions in the Western world,
resulting in dramatic increases in healthcare costs. Understanding the pro-cesses and metabolic perturbations that contribute to the expansion of adi-pose depots accompanying obesity is central to the development of
appropriate therapeutic strategies.
This volume brings together five chapters from Disease
Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd edition (DCP2
Jamison and others 2006). These chapters cover mental disorders,
neurological disorders, learning and developmental
disabilities, and alcohol and illicit opiate abuse. The purpose
of this special package is similar to the overall objective of the
parent volume - to provide information on cost-effectiveness
of interventions for these specific groups of disorders.
While he’s best known as the voice of reason and the most level-headed cast member on MTV’s Jersey Shore, what most people don’t know about Vinny Guadagnino is that he suffers from general anxiety disorder, a mental condition he shares with more than 40 million adults in the United States alone, and one he’s battled for most o...more
The advance of chemicals in industry during the XX century gave rise to a number of highly
aggressive compounds to human beings, and that altered the ecosystems balancing. Human
population is inevitably exposed to environmental pollution through air-degraded products,
water, the soil and food and their introduction into the food chain (Gomez et al, 2011).
The use of pesticides has been recognized and accepted as an essential ingredient in the modern
agriculture for the control of pests, which damage crops and as a result, they produce a severe
loss in food production.
Researchers have theorized that anti-inflammatory medications may help prevent
diseases, such as coronary artery diseases (CAD), cardio vascular diseases (CVD),
stroke, colon cancer and Alzheimer’s. Several recent findings from different
laboratories in the world employing case-control human studies and/or specific animal
models for chronic human diseases support these ideas.
During the past decade there has been enormous progress in our understanding
of the phenomenology, neurobiology, and treatment of children
and adolescents with bipolar disorder. In particular, the number of controlled
treatment studies of mania in children and adolescents is rapidly increasing,
thereby greatly improving our understanding of effective treatment
options for bipolar disorder in youth.
For progress to be maintained in a clinical field like sleep medicine, unimpeded,
unrestricted access to data and the advances in clinical practice should be available.
The reason this book is exciting is that it breaks down the barriers to dissemination of
information. Researchers at the forefront of areas that have limited funding can find it
difficult to get data from randomised, double-blind, (placebo-controlled), crossover or
parallel group studies, etc., and so may be limited to the lowest level of scientific
research, i.e. single case, or restricted observational series....
Services’ Ofﬁ ce on Women’s Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for
Health Statistics as a tool to help identify vulnerable and underserved populations at the state level, where most
decisions regarding health policy are developed and implemented. While the project provides data on health,
health care, and risk behavior on all populations in each state for which data are collected, women’s health
concerns have been targeted for inclusion, and racial and ethnic differences among women are a primary focus.
AIDS was first recognized in the United States in the summer of 1981, when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported the unexplained occurrence of Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly P. carinii) pneumonia in five previously healthy homosexual men in Los Angeles and of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) with or without P. jiroveci pneumonia in 26 previously healthy homosexual men in New York and Los Angeles. Within months, the disease became recognized in male and female injection drug users (IDUs) and soon thereafter in recipients of blood transfusions and in hemophiliacs.