Xem 1-20 trên 158 kết quả Control drug
  • Purpose: Based on theoretical studies of state management on the prevention of drugs, analysis and assessment of the state of the state management on the prevention of drugs in Vietnam, fellows establish and implement the scientific foundation to propose practical solutions to improve system ef ciency of state management on the prevention of drugs in Vietnam during the integration period.

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  • Products of nanotechnology are expected to revolutionize modern medicine, as evidenced by recent scientific advances and global initiatives to support nanotechnology and nanomedicine research. The field of drug delivery is a direct beneficiary of these advancements. Due to their versatility in targeting tissues, accessing deep molecular targets, and controlling drug release, nanoparticles are helping address challenges to face the delivery of modern, as well as conventional drugs.

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  • Introduction: Barbiturates are being widely used as antiepileptics, hypnotics and anaesthetics ( Figure 6.1 and Table 6.1). The incidence of barbiturate poisoning cases tends to increase in Japan ( Figure 6.2) [1]. A majority of the barbiturate drugs is being controlled by the Narcotics ⊡ Figure 6.1 Structures of barbiturates. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005 302 Barbiturates ⊡ Figure 6.2 Incidence of fatal barbiturate poisoning cases. Since fatal cases due to Vegetamin® tablets containing phenobarbital are many, its incidence rate is also shown in this figure.

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  • Introduction: Amphetamines are a group of drugs stimulating the central nervous system; they act on the cerebral cortex to enhance psychic activities, resulting in the removal of general fatigue and drowsiness and thus in the transient improvement of working efficiency. Their abuse causes dependence, hallucination, delusion and changes in personality. Because of such harmfulness of the drugs, their use and possession are prohibited by the Stimulant Drugs Control Law in Japan [1].

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  • Introduction: The chemical warfare agents well known count only about 30 kinds of compounds, such as sarin, soman, tabun, VX, mustard gas, lewisite and others. When unknown toxic substances should be analyzed upon the occurrence of chemical terrorism, much more kinds of poisons and related compounds become the objects of analysis. In the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)a, 120 thousand compoundsb, including typical chemical warfare agents, their related compounds, precursors and decomposition products, are being listed to be controlled.

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  • Introduction: The plant Cannabis sativa L. has a long history for human being since about BC 2000 for its use as fiber material, food and folk medicine; cannabis (hemp, marijuana) means the whole plant itself and its dried products except for its stem and seeds. The word “hashish” is mainly used for the resin of the cannabis plant.

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  • Introduction: Benzodiazepines show antianxiety, hypnotic, anticonvulsant and muscle-relaxant effects. This group of drugs has wide safety dose ranges; it means that the ratio of the LD50 to the ED50 (therapeutic index) is high. Because of its safety, benzodiazepines are being widely used in the world. Some of benzodiazepines are also being abused or used for so-called “drug facilitated sexual assault”, and thus they are under the control of the Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law; in Japan, triazolam abuse has become one of the serious social problems.

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  • Introduction: An organophosphorus nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate, Figure 2.1) shows potent inhibitory action on acetylcholinesterase; its development, production, stockpiling and use are being prohibited by the CWC international treaty as a chemical weapon together with those of sarin and soman. In addition, even material compounds for VX synthesis are being also controlled strictly. In the world history, there had been no records on the use of VX in any international dispute.

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  • Introduction: 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDAs), which were described as a new drug class “entactogens” a by Nichols [1], are being abused to enhance mutual understanding, communicativeness and empathy together with their hallucinogenic effects [1–3]. They are known as a group of designer drugs, and include 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine(MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine(MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) and N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine(MBDB) ( Fig. 7.1). Of the MDAs, MDA, MDMA and MDEA are strictly controlled by laws b.

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  • Discovery of a new chemical entity that exerts pharmacological effects for curing or treating diseases or relieving symptoms is only the first step in the drug developmental process. In the developmental cycle of a new drug, the delivery of a desired amount of a therapeutic agent to the target at a specific time or duration is as important as its discovery. In order to realize the optimal therapeutic outcomes, a delivery system should be designed to achieve the optimal drug concentration at a predetermined rate and at the desired location....

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  • For thousands of years, humans have used a variety of sources with which to cure their ills, cast out devils, promote their wellbeing, relieve their misery, and control their fertility. Until the beginning of the twentieth century, the agents used were all of natural origin, including many derived from plants as well as elements such as antimony, sulfur, mercury, and arsenic. The sixteenth-century alchemist and physician Paracelsus used mercury and arsenic in his treatment of syphilis, worms, and other diseases that were common at that time; his cure rates, however, remain unknown.

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  • This chapter identify and describe several opium‑derived drugs; list and describe synthetic narcotics; identify and distinguish among stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens; outline techniques used in investigating dangerous drugs and narcotics; assess the motives, methods, and management of drug informants;...

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Pediatric drug doses" presents the following contents: Antimyasthenics, antipsychotics anxiolytics sedatives, antiretrovirals, antiulcers antisecretory, cardiac shocks and failures, chelating agents, colony stimulating factors, drugs used for controlling bleeding, electrolyte supplements and fluid replacements, laxatives stool softeners,....

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  • For over 50 years, interest has been expressed in optimizing drug therapy through delivery system design. For many years this revolved around incorporating drugs into erodible or inert polymers, which then acted as platforms for controlled release, an approach that has been well reviewed in the literature.

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  • The Institute of Medicine Roundtable on Research and Development of Drugs, Biologics, and Medical Devices has evolved from the Forum on Drug Development, established in 1986. The importance of maintaining a neutral setting for discussions regarding long-term and politically sensitive issues was determined by sponsor representatives and the Institute of Medicine to justify the need for revising and enhancing past efforts.

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  • At the end of the session, participants should be able to: understand the complexity of drugs and classification of the drugs, define the society and understand the relation between drugs and society, understand the various interventions that can be used to mediate the impact of drugs on society.

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  • Chapter 17 - Drugs and prostitution. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: An economic model of market for drugs and prostitution, arguments for making a good illegal, decriminalizing drugs and prostitution.

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  • In this chapter you will learn: Apply the concepts of monopoly as well as consumer and producer surplus to the economics of prescription drugs; summarize why most health economists view prescription drugs as relatively inexpensive, even while most noneconomists view them as very expensiv; explain why it is that most health economists do not favor price controls on prescription drugs; identify the consequences of an approval process that is too stringent or too lax.

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  • More than 2,500 serotypes of Salmonella exist. However, only some of these serotypes have been frequently associated with food-borne illnesses. This book contains nineteen chapters which cover a range of different topics, such as the role of foods in Salmonella infections, food-borne outbreaks caused by Salmonella, biofilm formation, antimicrobial drug resistance of Salmonella isolates, methods for controlling Salmonella in food, and Salmonella isolation and identification methods.

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  • This handbook emphasizes the use of synthetic membranes for separations involving industrial or municipal process streams. Little will be said concerning the use of membranes in medical applications as in artificial kidneys or for controlled drug release. Most of the membrane processes are pressure driven. The notable exception to this is electrodialysis (ED) by which ions are separated under the influence of an electric field. In addition, the chapter on coupled transport covers processes which are driven under the influence of a concentration gradient....

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