Conventional agriculture

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  • Food availability, access, stability and utilization are all part of the multi-dimensional nature of food security. The “availability” aspect, discussed here, refers to the availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or inputs. Productivity is usually considered the ultimate benchmark when comparing the performance of agricultural systems. For example, those involved in agricultural research and development want to know how much yield would be reduced if conventional agriculture were converted to organic agriculture.

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  • Agricultural biotechnology offers great promise for Africa and tissue culture and marker-assisted selection are already in widespread use across the continent. However, the safe application of these technologies requires functioning biosafety systems. The report focuses on the special issues related to biosafety in Africa.Crops can be improved by conventional breeding, by tissue culture and by marker-aided selection. But for many improvements - such as drought and salinity tolerance - GM technology is going to be essential.

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  • As a major rice exporter worldwide, the quality of rice has become a central issue for farmers in Vietnam, especially in the rainy harvest season. Therefore, it is important to dry the rice as quickly as possible to prevent damage but maintain quality. Conventional drying techniques such as flat bed dryers can take up to 8 hours (or more) to dry the moisture rice to safety. High-temperature drying can allow the rice to dry more quickly, so space and time taken to dry the rice can be shorter nhieu.Nghien agricultural science...

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  • The editors would like to thank the governments of Canada (idrc, International Development Research Centre) and Switzerland (Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation) for their generous fi nancial support of this book.

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  • The Ramsar Convention defined the wise use of peatlands as “their sustainable use for the benefit of mankind in a way compatible with the maintenance of the natural properties of the ecosystem.” Land sustainability relates to definite periods and land uses.

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  • The concern I want to raise in this chapter is related to the relationship between indigenous identities, knowledge systems and indigenous values and world views compared to world views found in South Africa’s new curricula after new dispensation. What are the values the indigenous pupils meet at home? Do they concur with those of the new curricula after 1994? The rationale for this focus is related to the question of whether the South African primary school is ‘their school’, i.e the school for the majority of South African children in terms of culture and knowledge....

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  • Heat treatment and surface engineering are seen as crucial elements in the design and manufacture of strategic components in a wide range of market sectors and industries including air, sea and land transportation, energy production, mining, defense or agriculture. This book offers a broad review of recent global developments in an application of thermal and thermochemical processing to modify the microstructure and properties of a wide range of engineering materials.

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  • Wetland ecosystems are a natural resource of global significance.Historically, their high level of plant and animal (especially bird) diversity is perhaps the major reason why wetland protection has become a high priority worldwide, supported by international agreements, such as the Ramsar Convention and the International Convention of Biological Diversity (Fig. 1.1).

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  • Legumes are important for the diet of a significant part of the world's population; they are a good source of protein, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. The'importance of soybean'lies in the overall agriculture and trade and in its contribution to food supply. Soybean contains the highest protein content and has no cholesterol in comparison with conventional legume and animal food sources.

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  • Overall, Cambodia’s rubber export competitiveness remains weaker than that of other countries in the region, except for the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. One of the problems is that despite the application of conventional technology for the management and maintenance of rubber trees and traditional rubber clones, per- hectare rubber yield remains lower than in other countries of the region.

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  • The systematic review search process identified 162 relevant articles published, with an English abstract, in peer-reviewed journals since 1st January 1958 until 29th February 2008. A total of 3558 comparisons of content of nutrients and other substances in organically and conventionally produced foodstuffs were extracted for analysis.

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  • Strong increase in the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) observed over the years has led to a consolidation of transgenic seed industries worldwide. The dichotomy between the evaluated risk and the perceived risk of transgenic use has defined their level of acceptability among different global societies. GMOs have been widely applied to agricultural commodities, among them the Roundup Ready™ (RR™) soybean line GTS 40-3-2 has become the most prevalent transgenic crop in the world.

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  • Marx, it is often assumed, cared only about industrial growth and the development of economic forces. John Bellamy Foster examines Marx's neglected writings on capitalist agriculture and soil ecology, philosophical naturalism, and evolutionary theory. He shows that Marx, known as a powerful critic of capitalist society, was also deeply concerned with the changing human relationship to nature. Marx's Ecology covers many other thinkers, including Epicurus, Charles Darwin, Thomas Malthus, Ludwig Feuerbach, P. J. Proudhon, and William Paley.

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  • Many of the traditionally sound cultural practices recommended for conventional agriculture are also employed in organic production. In fact, organic agriculture has been referred to as “good farming practice without using synthetic chemicals.”2 For example, planned crop rotations, which have multiple benefits in terms of soil building, plant health, pest management, and enhancing biodiversity, are required in annual organic cropping systems.

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  • Anaerobic processing of manure occurs in almost all storage piles, pits and ponds . The idea 6 behind anaerobic processes is that they occur in the absence of oxygen and they rely on the degradation of the manure by anaerobic bacteria. There are two basic types of bacteria involved in the process. The first type convert fats, carbohydrates and proteins in the manure into simpler compounds and are rapidly reproducing bacteria that are not sensitive to environmental changes .

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  • The Tosa Maru brought us again into Shanghai March 20th, just in time for the first letters from home. A ricksha man carried us and our heavy valise at a smart trot from the dock to the Astor House more than a mile, for 8.6 cents, U. S. currency, and more than the conventional price for the service rendered. On our way we passed several loaded carryalls of the type seen in Fig. 61, on which women were riding for a fare one-tenth that we had paid, but at a slower pace and with many a jolt. The ringing chorus...

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  • Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics and Department of Finance. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign .

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  • Biotechnology (sometimes shortened to "biotech") is generally accepted as the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity)[1] . For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production and medicine.[2] The term itself is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Karl Ereky.

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  • The first part refers to environmental biotechnology and includes two chapters regarding total recycling of agricultural and food wastes through the biodegradation and bioconversion processes that are performed by selected microbial species in controlled cultivation systems. The next chapter is dedicated to the biotechnology of biopolymer producing by saving energy comparing with the conventional chemical processes.

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  • Biotechnology (sometimes shortened to "biotech") is generally accepted as the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity)[1] . For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production and medicine.[2] The term itself is largely believed to have been coined in 1919 by Hungarian engineer Karl Ereky.

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